UPSC Mains 2020 GS Paper 1: Question wise analysis

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“The more you sweat in peace, the less you bleed in battle”

The saying will hold no greater significance than this year, as we analyze the GS mains exam of UPSC in 2020. Those who would have followed the tests (Sectional and FLTs) whole-heartedly, would have felt the exam as their home-turf.

We’ve provided a question by question analysis of the GS paper 1 below but before that let’s start with some of the observations that we came up with while analysing the whole paper.

GS Paper 1: Observations

  • Comparing it with 2019 mains, we see more directness in the questions rather than twists and turns.
    1. Evaluate the policies of Lord Curzon and their long-term implications on the national movements.
    2. How will the melting of Himalayan glaciers have a far-reaching impact on the water resources of India?
  • In terms of coverage of topics, the weightage is as follows:
    1. History (modern India)-  2
    2. Art & Culture- 4
    3. Geography- 8
    4. Society and Social issues- 6
  • Geography questions seem to be very straightforward, NCERT based and current affairs-based.
    1. NCERT based-
      • Discuss the geophysical characteristics of Circum- Pacific Zone.
      • How will the melting of Himalayan glaciers have a far- reaching impact on the water resources of India? 
      • Account for the present location of iron and steel industries away from the source of raw material, by giving examples.
      • Examine the status of forest resources of India and its resultant impact on climate change.
    2. Current Affairs based:
      • The process of desertification does not have climate boundaries. Justify with examples.
      • The interlinking of rivers can provide viable solutions to the multi-dimensional inter-related problems of droughts, floods and interrupted navigation. Critically examine.
  • In History, this time Art & Culture was the centre of attraction, but questions were more or less manageable if aspirants had thoroughly gone through the NCERTs.
  • Social Issues:
    1. Some questions were easy to manage like- Covid 19 and Class Inequalities, Caste lost its relevance.
    2. Some Questions required a philosophical bent because of the open-endedness- 
      • Customs and traditions suppress reason leading to obscurantism. Do you agree?
      • Do you agree that regionalism in India appears to be a consequence of rising cultural assertiveness? Argue.

Overall the questions were manageable and with some analytical ability could have been easily tackled. Since the questions were straightforward so more dimensions will fetch good marks. 

GS paper 1: How useful was CivilsDaily’s Mains Test Series?

The test series questions that CivilsDaily provided held quite a similarity with the themes and the structure of questions asked in the mains exam. This happened because we try to keep in mind the central themes being asked in the last 8-9 years in UPSC. After a thorough analysis, we came up with 30-35 themes on which we always ask questions. So our test series also relied on those themes and we came so close.

Question-wise analysis of the UPSC Mains 2020 GS Paper 1

Having said that, here is the evidence of our claims, regarding how closer we were:

Q1. The rock-cut architecture represents one of the most important sources of our knowledge of early Indian art and history. Discuss. 

CD TEST Q. Highlighting various phases of Rock Cut Architecture in India, discuss their socio-cultural and religious importance in Indian History.

Approach to Answer:

Introduction: start with a simple explanation of what rock-cut architecture is and how it is significant for telling about the history.

Body: start with examples from Ancient India history- the Bhimbetka caves, moving on to South Indian rock-cut caves.

  • Natural caves were the earliest caves used by local inhabitants. The natives used such caves for different purposes like places of worship and shelters. The Mesolithic period (6000 BC) saw the first use and modifications of the early caves, a fact manifested by archaeological evidences. 
  • The Rock-cut structures present the most spectacular piece of ancient Indian art specimen. Most of the rock-cut structures were closely associated with various religions and religious activities.
  • Numerous caves were excavated by the Buddhist monks for prayer and residence purposes. 
    • The best example of this is Chaityas (prayer halls) and viharas (monasteries). Inside these rock-cut structures, windows and balconies and gates were carved as huge arch shaped openings.


Rock cut architecture tells us about all aspects of history as visible evidence which may be missed out in other forms of evidence like Hagiographies, numismatics etc.

Q2. Pala period is the most significant phase in the history of Buddhism in India. Enumerate. 

Approach to Answer:

  • Introduce by telling the importance of Pala period in the context of Buddhism.
  • Gopala, the first Pala king, was a Buddhist and so all of his descendants also were.
  • The Pala rulers used the revenue from the new tax collection methods to fund initiatives all across the region that would spread Buddhism. 
  • The Pala rulers followed an approach of religious tolerance- this allowed for a peaceful exchange of ideas between the faiths and is a large factor in why Hindu Tantrism made its way into Buddhism, giving rise to the Vajrayana philosophy.
  • The Pala dynasty created the environment for Buddhist monasteries to thrive and discuss philosophies without prejudice. But, importantly, it also facilitated the spread of these ideas around the world, leaving a legacy that we can still see today.

Q3. Evaluate the policies of Lord Curzon and their long term implications on the national movements. 

CD Test Q.How far is it correct to say that if Clive was the founder of the British Empire in India, Warren Hastings was its administrative organizer? (10 marks)

Approach to Answer:

  • Introduction: briefly state Curzon’s policy
  • Body:
    • Partition of Bengal 1905
    • His Educational interventions 
    • Reactionary policies
    • Opposition to formation of Congress
    • Administrative reforms
  • Conclusion:
    • Curzon’s policies had both the positive and negative effects. But the Indian Nationalists were mature enough to learn from his mistakes and thus easily moulded the policies as per nation’s need.

Q4. Discuss the geophysical characteristics of Circum- Pacific Zone.

Approach to Answer:

  • Introduction: mention the area of circum pacific zone
  • Use Map
  • Geophysical characteristics :
    • subduction” tectonic structure
    • Island arcs and deep-focus earthquakes
    • Oceanic trench 
    • active volcanoes- Seventy-five percent of Earth’s volcanoes—more than 450 volcanoes—are located along the Ring of Fire.
    • This stretch of the Ring of Fire is a transform boundary, where plates move sideways past one another

Q5. The process of desertification does not have climate boundaries. Justify with examples.

CD TEST Q. What is desertification? In a recently held Bonn Agreement, India has promised to take certain steps to combat land degradation. Discuss the causes of land degradation and suggest measures on combating it. (10 marks)

Approach to Answer:

Introduction: What do you mean by DESERTIFICATION. Recent meet on UNCCD.

Body: begin with describing how desertification has become a global phenomenon across geography and boundaries.

  • The combined impact of climate change, land mismanagement and unsustainable freshwater use has seen the world’s water-scarce regions increasingly degraded. This leaves their soils less able to support crops, livestock and wildlife.
  • Although natural causes like disasters, water erosion and wind erosion are major causes of Desertification, the alarming rise in it can be attributed to mainly anthropogenic factors which includes climate change, overgrazing by animals, deforestation, unsustainable farming practices and the overexploitation of resources by humans.
  • In the case of India, 96 million hectares or close to 29% of India’s area is undergoing degradation and according to the data recently presented to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), India lost 31%, or 5.65 million hectares (mha), of grassland area in a decade. Also, more than 80% of the country’s degraded land lies in just nine states.
  • Globally, the rate of desertification is speeding up. Africa is the worst affected continent; with two-thirds of its land either desert or drylands. Almost a third of land in the U.S. is affected by desertification; and one quarter of Latin America and the Caribbean, and one fifth of Spain.

Conclusion: Ending desertification is the best chance the world has to stabilize the effects of climate change, save wildlife species and protect our well-being. Protecting the forest is our mutual responsibility, which should be carried out by people and governments worldwide.

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Q6. How will the melting of Himalayan glaciers have a far- reaching impact on the water resources of India?

CD TEST Q. What are landslides and how do they occur? What are the causes of more frequent occurrence of landslides in the Himalayas than in the Western Ghats? (15 )

Approach to Answer:

  • Introduction: about Himalyan physical characteristics and its association with water resources in India. 
  • With different glaciers, connect it with how important it is in providing water resources to different parts of India
  • It is predicted that the region will become increasingly urbanized as cities expand to absorb migrants in search of economic opportunities. 
  • changes in the availability of water resources could play an increasing role in political tensions, especially if existing water management institutions do not better account for the social, economic, and ecological complexities of the region.

Q7. Account for the present location of iron and steel industries away from the source of raw material, by giving examples. 

CD TEST Q. The Iron and steel industry is the backbone of industrial development. Explain. Highlight the locational factors of this industry in India.

Why this question?

Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)

Approach to Answer:

Introduction: to begin with, mention the role of iron and steel industries in introduction.

Body: Begin by explaining why they are present away from the source of raw materials.

  • Transportation facilities available at accessible cost
  • Increasing automation
  • The raw material based industries are now facing disadvantages because of depleting reserves of raw material. 
    • So, considering long-term survival of the industry, it is desirable for the industries to select a location which can provide sustained growth to the industry.
  • The drastic reduction of coal use and develop­ment of fuel economy also attracted industries to the areas where transport is cheaper; 
    • For example, a cheap water route or break of bulk location, where due to loading and unloading facilities, raw materials are available at a much cheaper price.

Q8. Has caste lost its relevance in understanding the multi- cultural Indian Society? Elaborate your answer with illustrations.

CD TEST Q. Manifestation of caste and modern Democracy are two opposite poles in Indian political system. Analyse.

CD TEST Q. Capitalism cannot annihilate the caste system and caste is reinventing itself with modernity.Discuss. (10 marks)

CD Test Q.Caste in its old form is irrelevant and cannot exist in the modern or contemporary Indian society. Comment(15)

Similar question in the past

“Caste system is assuming new identities and associational forms. Hence, the caste system cannot be eradicated in India.” Comment. (2018 upsc mains)

Approach to Answer:

Introduction: Caste has myriad forms in India. It’s existence till now proves its roots in the Indian culture. However the recent trends show a different result, where leaving the core characteristics, many features of caste are getting diluted.


How the caste features are getting diluted

  • Inter-caste marriages- a new normal
  • Inter-dining with any caste 
  • Job opportunities- fading up the differentiation
  • The rituals and customs being universalised
  • Urbanisation- loosening the caste fabric 
  • Globalisation
  • Industrialisation
  • Rise of middle class 
  • Law
  • Coalition Politics

Caste- still holds lots of importance

  • Patriarchy
  • Tribe
  • Occupation based discrimination
  • Vote bank politics

Q9. COVID-19 pandemic accelerated class inequalities and poverty in India. Comment.

CD TEST Q. The National Commission for Women has reported a surge in domestic violence and cybercrimes, which has made girls and women more vulnerable as they struggle to fight another pandemic of violence and abuse inside their homes and online. Discuss the reasons behind it and suggest solutions to end these menace in society. (10 marks)


Approach to Answer:

  • Give some data and figures about the migrants, economic slowdown etc.
  • Accelerated class inequality and poverty:
    • Online classes to students- haves and have-nots
    • Violence against women and vulnerable classes
    • Issues related to migrant population
    • Unemployment 
    • Minorities have been hit harder and are recovering more slowly from the downturn.
    • higher-paid workers are working from home while lower-paid blue-collar workers typically do not have this option.
    • lower paid workers are more represented in the sectors that have suspended activities such as hotels, restaurants and tourism services.
    • Ethnic inequalities on the rise
    • Doctors and law functionaries facing the brunt more than any other working professionals.
  • However the other side of the coin is
    • Environment related inequality reduced
    • Everyone locked- hence rules are equally followed 
    • The migrants from foreign countries are facing equal.
  • Give way forward 

Q10. Do you agree that regionalism in India appears to be a consequence of rising cultural assertiveness? Argue.

CD TEST Q. Regionalism in India is a phenomenon which is coming into picture every now and then due to several factors. Illustrate with examples the factors responsible for growing assertion of regionalism in India. Also discuss the steps needed to cater the challenges associated with regionalism.

CD TEST Q. Do you think regionalism in its contemporary form which is more competitive than divisive will usher a new era of prosperity in India. Critically examine (15 marks)

Why this question?

What is the basis of regionalism? Is it that unequal distribution of benefits of development on a regional basis eventually promotes regionalism? Substantiate your answer. (2016 upsc mains)

Approach to Answer:

Introduction: start by defining regionalism. Also mention that factors that you think are promoting it in recent times. 


Regionalism- consequence of rising cultural assertiveness 

  • Cultural assertiveness reflects beliefs as to whether people are or should be encouraged to be assertive, aggressive, and tough or non-assertive, non-aggressive, and tender in social relationships. 
  • Fear of minorities about dilution of their cultural ideologies 
  • Tribal population- seeing their culture endangered, they are going for regionalistic tendencies to save it
  • Sometimes vast differences in the way of living, cuisines, language etc lead to such demands 

Not always the case

  • Regional politics dominating such demands
  • Developmental disparities 
  • Power assertion from some classes
  • The North-South divide


With the New-India, new challenges are appearing on each front but unity is still holding importance because of the tolerance and path of peace being followed at large in India.

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Q11. Indian Philosophy and tradition played a significant role in conceiving and shaping the monuments and their art in India. Discuss.

CD TEST Q. ‘India has always excelled in religious philosophies, but these philosophies not only always dealt with spiritual affairs, but also with social problems.’ Taking into account the given statement, evaluate the contribution of Buddhism to contemporary society. How far do you agree that these ideologies are capable enough in solving the problems of present day society?

Approach to Answer:

Introduction : Naming some of the famous philosophies based on which famous monuments are being built.


  • discuss each philosophy like Buddhism, Jainism, hinduism- their thoughts and monuments built.
  • Khajuraho, Ajanta-Ellora, Konark Sun temples are some famous examples
  • Similarly Islam and its phlosophy and culture- being depicted in their monuments 
  • Temple architecture- not only a place for worshipping but also played role in trade and commerce; symbol of power etc
  • Folk culture and arts based on them- mithila arts, fresco etc 

Q12. Persian literary sources of medieval India reflect the spirit of the age. Comment. 

CD TEST Q. . How did the architecture of the Delhi Sultanate period reflect contemporary socio-politico-economic realities? (15 marks)

CD TEST Q. Assess the importance of the accounts of the Greek and Roman travellers in the reconstruction of the history of India. 

Approach to Answer:

Similar Question asked in 2018 mains 

Assess the importance of the accounts of the Chinese and Arab travellers in the reconstruction of the history of IndiaIndia has,for long history, witnessed visits from a large number of travelers across the world. Ancient Greek and Roman travellers, diplomats and historians were the first to write about India from their knowledge and information. All these foreign accounts prove useful for writing history. 

CD TEST Q. During medieval India, the writings of authors revealed a holistic picture of the society at that period of time. In this context, discuss the economic, social and cultural aspects that can be outlined from the writings of Ibn Batuta and Bernier.

Approach to Answer:

While the question looks straight forward but you have to deal with the specific time period of Batuta and Bernier. Only if you have an insight of the situations during the 13th and 17th century.

You have to deal with societal elements like women, slaves, city life , rural life etc in detail.

Introduction: Start the answer by mentioning the importance of literary accounts in writing history of medieval India. After that, discuss the important persian works which deal with Medieval Indian history.


  • Persian learned men wrote Tawarikh. These were histories which are valuable sources of information about medieval India. These were written in persian which was the language of the Delhi Sultanate.
  • Travellers such Ibn Battuta and Al Beruni wrote Rihlah and Kitab ul Hind respectively. 
  • Then further there were biographies written in the era of Mughals such as Ain i Akbari, Tuzuk e babari. 
  • Some of the prominent poets and writers of Persian who adorned his court were Khawaja Abu Nasr (whose pen name was Nasiri), Abu Bakr bin Muhammad Ruhani of Samarqand, Taj-ud-Dabir and Nur- ud-Din Muhammad Awfi.  
  • these sources have commented upon the social structure, political institutions, religion, comparative analysis between India and Persian territories, the economy of the period. 
  • For example, Ain e Akbari delves on the topic of religion, status of women, powers of Monarch, policies by administration and specific views of Akbar on harmony such as Sulh e Kul.

Conclusion: the persian sources of medieval history hold prominence because they provide a good deal of insight and knowledge about the conditions of those times-art and architecture, history and literature, agriculture and industry, commerce and trade, culture and civilization, philosophy and religion etc. 

Q.13 Since the decade of the 1920s, the national movement acquired various ideological strands and thereby expanded its social base. Discuss.

Approach to Answer:

  • Coming of Gandhiji into the scene
  • Satyagraha, non-cooperation, civil disobedience
  • Socialist and Communist strands 
  • Dream of complete swaraj and no dominion
  • Some communal bent also could be seen 
  • After 1919 the struggle against British rule gradually
  • became a mass movement, involving peasants, tribals, students and women in large numbers and occasional factory workers as well.
  • The First World War altered the economic and political situation in India. It led to a huge rise in the defence expenditure of the Government of India.

Q14. The interlinking of rivers can provide viable solutions to the multi-dimensional inter-related problems of droughts, floods and interrupted navigation. Critically examine. 

CD TEST Q. The stark differences in water availability in the river basins in the country has thrown up the idea of interlinking of rivers. However, River Linking Project involves multifaceted issues and challenges related to environmental, economic, ecological, legal, political and social costs. Discuss.

Approach to Answer:

  • Start with some major river interlinking projects 
  • Use map
  • Taking example of different states and the associated importance of interlinking of rivers could be given 

Q15. Account for the huge flooding of million cities in India including the smart ones like Hyderabad and Pune. Suggest lasting remedial measures.

CD TEST Q. The flooding in Hyderabad was a crisis in making. Elaborate with possible solutions with the recommendations of the national flood commission of 1976. 

Approach to Answer:

Introduction: start by defining the concept of urban flooding. Also add how while this was initially seen only in cities like Mumbai and Delhi now the scourge has been extended to smart cities like Hyderabad and Pune. 

Body: mention the causes of urban flooding in india.

  • Cities like Hyderabad, Mumbai rely on a century-old drainage system, covering only a small part of the core city. In the last 20 years, the Indian cities have grown manifold with its original built-up area. As the city grew beyond its original limits, not much was done to address the absence of adequate drainage systems.
  • Lasting irreversible damage has been done to the city by property builders, property owners, and public agencies by flattening terrain and altering natural drainage routes.
  • Indian cities are becoming increasingly impervious to water, not just because of increasing built up but also because of the nature of materials used (hard, non-porous construction material that makes the soil impervious).
  • Even with provisions of rainwater harvesting, sustainable urban drainage systems, etc, in regulatory mechanisms like the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), adoption at user end as well as enforcement agencies remains weak.
  • The number of wetlands has reduced to 123 in 2018 from 644 in 1956. Green cover is only 9 per cent, which ideally should have been at least 33 per cent.

Remedial measure: 

  • Floods cannot be managed without concerted and focused investments of energy and resources. The Metropolitan Development Authorities, NDMA, State revenue and irrigation departments along with municipal corporations should be involved in such work together.
  • Developing Sponge Cities: The idea of a sponge city is to make cities more permeable so as to hold and use the water which falls upon it. This allows for the extraction of water from the ground through urban or peri-urban wells.
  • Wetland Policy: There is a need to start paying attention to the management of wetlands by involving local communities.
  • Water Sensitive Urban Design: These methods take into consideration the topography, types of surfaces (permeable or impervious), natural drainage and leave very less impact on the environment.

Conclusion: Urban Flood management will not just help control recurring floods but also respond to other fault lines, provide for water security, more green spaces, and will make the city resilient and sustainable.

Q16. India has immense potential of solar energy though there are regional variations in its developments. Elaborate. 

CD TEST Q. Solar energy is being considered as mankind’s saviour in the era of climate change. Critically analyse India’s solar energy development plan.

Approach to Answer:

Introduction: talk in brief about solar energy and its benefits


  • India in a big step forward aimed at 100 GW of installed solar power capacity by 2022, and this seemed impossible at the time given that the entire country had under 3 GW of existing installations. Yet, the ambitious target set clearly signalled the government’s intent to make solar energy an integral part of Indian energy security strategy. 
  • India has managed to hit about 35 GW in installed capacity till now. One major gap is rooftop solar, which has not progressed much. So while adding 65 GW of solar capacity in two years looks tough, opening up the rooftop solar market nationwide can help push the envelope.
  • About 5,000 trillion kWh per year energy is incident over India’s land area with most parts receiving 4-7 kWh per sq. m per day.
  • The National Institute of Solar Energy has assessed the Country’s solar potential of about 748 GW assuming 3% of the wasteland area to be covered by Solar PV modules.

Regional disparity: Karnataka which tops the list of states with the highest installed solar power generation capacity had 5,328 megawatt (MW) capacity, while Telangana houses the second-highest installed solar power generation capacity in the country followed by Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

A map or a diagram may be used for representing the state wise and region wise situation in the country.

Conclusion: India needs to show leadership at global level to advance the manufacture and absorption of solar photovoltaic infrastructure in low- and middle-income countries.  it needs to come up with integrated policies fully supported by states where industry gets help to set up facilities and avail low cost financing  

India should also be able to invest in intellectual property. A decentralised approach will be suited for Indian landscape and there has to be greater use of residential and commercial buildings to deploy more panels.  

Q17. Examine the status of forest resources of India and its resultant impact on climate change.

CD TEST Q. Examine the significance of urban forestry in reducing frequency and intensity of natural disasters in Indian cities. (10 marks)

Approach to Answer:

Introduction: state the importance of forests and then talk about forests in India in brief.

Body: taking data from the state of the forests report 2019, describe the situation of forest resources in India.

  • The country’s forest cover includes all patches of land with a tree canopy density of more than 10% and more than 1 hectare in area, irrespective of land use, ownership and species of trees.
  • The total forest cover of the country is 7,12,249 sq km which is 21.67% of the geographical area of the country.
  • Total forest cover in the North Eastern region is 1,70,541 sq km, which is 65.05% of its geographical area. There has been a decrease of forest cover to the extent of 765 sq km (0.45%) in the region. Except Assam and Tripura, all the States in the region show decrease in forest cover.
  • Briefly mention the National Forest Policy of India, 1988 and that it envisages a goal of achieving 33% of the geographical area of the country under forest and tree cover and how India is short of achieving the target.

Resultant impact: describe how it impacts global climate, on hydrology and soil, on biological diversity and economic and social welfare etc.

Conclusion: Forest conservation involves the upkeep of the natural resources within a forest that are beneficial to both humans and the environment. Forests are vital for human life because they provide a diverse range of resources. But now-a-days, forest cover is depleting rapidly due to many reasons such as an expansion of agriculture, timber plantation, other land uses like pulp and paper plantations, urbanization, construction of roads, industries, constitutes the biggest and severe threat to the forest causing serious environmental damage. Thus, there is a need for public awareness.

Q18. Is diversity and pluralism in India under threat due to globalisation? Justify your answer.

CD TEST Q. The diversity of India apart from being a source of strength has also created challenges to the growth of the country. Critically comment.

Approach to Answer:


Link diversity pluralism and globalisation in two three lines.


Globalisation- threatening the diversity and pluralism

  • McDonaldization of culture and food habits
  • Western philosophies- like live-in relations, contractual marriages etc
  • Individualistic tendencies taking over the community decisions
  • Laws getting more based on individual rights rather than cultural views
  • Festivals getting new taste rather than being dependent on rituals and customs

Not threatening 

  • Still the cultural roots in villages are being preserved- not affected by globalisation
  • Indians are western by mind but Indian by heart 
  • Politics and religion go hand in hand in contrast to Negative Secularisation in West
  • Emphasis on Atma-Nirbhar bharat- leading to more indigenisation in economy- which means saving Indian taste and culture 
  • Even environmentalism and climate change issues are more inter-linked to the customs and traditions in India rather than just commercial needs. Eg: sacred groves

Q19. Customs and traditions suppress reason leading to obscurantism. Do you agree?

Approach to Answer:

  • Start with a positive note about how customs and traditions are a part and parcel for India from a very long period of time making it a place of diversity and a country being looked upon for its uniqueness.
  • Take a stand whether for or against. More bent should be on the side to be taken by you.
  • Agree:
    • Hindu tradition of burning the dead bodies and Islamic tradition of burying it have their unique philosophy 
    • Some of the customs and traditions though are very old, but still followed with rational ideas of peace and spirituality. Eg: kalpavas in kumbh 
  • Limitations:
    • Blind faith in customs is superstition and do lead to obscurantism
    • Such andha-bhakti by some anti-social elements is creating havoc like Mob-Lynching  
    • The cults are making their way into the Indian society and many a times disturb the social fabric of the culture by misinformations.  
  • Balance the answer taking into consideration the limitations 
  • Many customs and Traditions have been reformed over the past 100 years but still Conclude again on positive note

Q20. How have digital initiatives in India contributed to the functioning of the education system in the country? Elaborate your answer. 

CD TEST Q. Covid-19 pandemic forced many educational institute to explore the online more of education. And this also brought to the fore the potential of the online mode of education. In light of this, examine the issues with substituting the online mode of education for the traditional educational mode.

CD TEST Q. Digitising India could accelerate its progress towards development but there are certain factors which must be addressed before India could reap benefits of digitising. Examine such factors and suggest the ways to deal with the issues in digitising the country. (10)

Approach to Answer:

  • Start with the Covid pandemic and the digital penetration in Indian education system
  • Give various examples and advantages of Digital base- online education in schools, edutech startups, innovative ways for teaching complex concepts and so on
  • Limitations
  • Way forward

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