Topics for Today’s questions:
GS-1 Urbanization, their problems and their remedies
GS-2 Constitution of India—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure; Representation of People’s Act
GS-3 Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.
GS-4 Case Studies
Q.1 Whereas the UN Habitat report calls cities “the highest pinnacles of human creation”, the moot question is what form the cities of developing world should take. In context of this statement, examine the contending strategies of urbanisation, with respect to India. (15 Marks)
Q.2 What is the procedure for the selection of election commissioners and issues with it? Suggest the way forward. (10 Marks)
Q.3 The demographic dividend is available for a period of time, ‘the window of demographic opportunity’ and India is in the middle of a demographic transition. In the context of this, suggest the policy changes India need to reap the dividend. (10 Marks)
Q.4 Regulation and procedure of human clinical trials vary from nation to nation. Stem cell research, as an emerging biomedical field, requires approval for human trials and encounters multiple challenges. You are the head of a team of scientists who developed a new Tissue Engineering system, which appears to be a promising means of regenerating heart tissue. Trials of the system have already been conducted on animals and yielded good results. Millions of people suffering from critical heart diseases would benefit immensely if this medication is immediately made available to them. However, you need to conduct human clinical trials before it could be commercialized. It is also known that the stringent regulatory environment in the country will mean that human trials and final approval will take many years before it is made commercially available. On the other hand, regulation of clinical trials in many poor countries is weak and quick approval is possible. Many of your competitors also resort to human trials in these countries, often bribing the officials for getting quick approvals. Given this situation, answer the following questions: (a) Identify the ethical issues which arise during clinical trials. (b) Given the above situation, would you prefer to shift human trials to a third country where regulations are lax? Give reasons in support of your choice. (c) Suggest a framework of standard procedure to minimize ethical conflicts and speedup the approval process of new medicines. (20 Marks)
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