India’s Defence Program

 

1. Missiles and Missile Defence Systems

There are 2 kinds of Missiles, Ballistic and Cruise.

Ballistic Missiles Cruise Missiles
It follows a ballistic trajectory with the objective of delivering one or more warheads to a predetermined target. It is a guided missile that remains in the atmosphere and flies the major portion of its flight path at approximately constant speed.
Target is predetermined. Fit for large targets. Target can be mobile. More appropriate for small mobile targets.
Guided only during relatively brief periods of flight and the rest of its trajectory is unpowered and governed by gravity. Are self-navigating
High altitude.
Easy to track
Able to fly in extremely low-altitude trajectory. Makes it difficult to track

 

The speed of Missiles are measured in Mach Number.

Mach Number = Object Speed/Speed of Sound.

 

The following is a very comprehensive chart describing the various kinds of classifications that exist of missiles.

 

 

Integrated Guided Missile Development Program(IGMDP)

Timeline of India’s Missile Development Program

http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/timeline-of-indias-missile-development-programme/article18708216.ece

 

Ballistic Missile Defence

A 2-tier system, being developed by DRDO, that provides a multi-layered shield against ballistic missile attacks.

 

Surveillance Technologies 

NETRA – It is a first indigenously developed airborne early warning and control system (AEW&C), mounted on a Brazilian Embraer-145, developed by Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO).

• AEW&C is also called eye-in-the-sky which is capable of long-range surveillance and a force multiplier.
• India is only 4th such nation after United States, Russia and Israel that have such technology on their own.

Important features of NETRA are:
• Range of 200 kms (Capability to detect aerial threats from incoming aircraft and missiles).
• 240 degrees coverage (simultaneously scan the area on both sides of aircraft)
• State of the art active electronically scanned radar and Secondary surveillance radar.
• Electronic and communication counter measures.
• Line of sight and beyond line of sight data link.
• Voice communication system and self-protection suit.

 

Rustom-2 – Rustom-2 is medium-altitude long-endurance drone (MALE) designed and developed by Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) of the DRDO, Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd and Bharat Electronics.

• It can fly up to an altitude of 22,000 feet and has endurance of over 20 hours.

• It can carry variety of payloads like Electronic Intelligence (ELINT), Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Communication Intelligence (COMINT) and Situational Awareness Payloads (SAP) for performing missions even during the night.

• It will be used by all three services of Indian armed forces, primarily for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) operations.

• Rustom 2 can fly missions on manual as well as autonomous modes.

 

2. NAVY SHIPS 

Submarines 

 

Very good article on how ships are named

https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/indian-navy-ships-submarine-names-ins-chennai-4618680/

 

3. Aeronautical Mechanisms

 

4. Armaments

 

 

INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK

Ministry of Defence

The primary responsibility is to counter insurgency and ensure external security of India.

  • It comprises of 4 departments:
    • Dept. of Defence: It deals with the three services(Army, Air Force, Navy & Coast Guard) and various Inter-Service Organisations
    • Dept. of Defence Production: It deals with framing of policy directions on defence and security related matters and communicating them for implementation to Service Headquarters and other organisations
    • Dept. of Defence Research and Development: It advises the Govt. on scientific aspects of military equipment and logistics
    • Dept. of Ex-Servicemen Welfare: It deals with resettlement, welfare and pensionary matters of Ex-Servicemen

 

Defence Research and Development Organisation(DRDO)

  • Design, develop and lead to production of state-of-the-art sensors, weapon systems, platforms and allied equipment for our Defence Services.
  • Provide technological solutions to the Services to optimise combat effectiveness and to promote well-being of the troops.
  • Develop infrastructure and committed quality manpower and build strong indigenous technology base.
  • It works under the Dept. of Defence Research and Development

 

Defence Production

1. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited(HAL)

  • It is engaged in the design, development, manufacture, repair and overhaul of aircrafts, helicopters engines and their accessories
  • It is responsible for the development of Dhruv, an Advanced Light Helicopter(ALH)

2. Bharat Electronics Limited(BEL)

  • It is engaged in the design, development and manufacture of state-of-the-art electronics equipment components for the use of Defence Services

3. Mazagon Dock Limited(MDL)

  • It is the premier defence shipyard in the country located in Mumbai.
  • It is engaged in the production of warships, submarines, missile boats, destroyers etc.
  • Scorpene-class Submarines are being developed here under the Project 75I. Other defence production units include Bharat Earth Movers Ltd., Goa Shipyard Ltd., Bharat Dynamics Ltd. etc.
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