Women empowerment issues – Jobs,Reservation and education

A blurred mapping of internal female migration

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS)

Mains level : There is little dialogue surrounding female migrant issues

Big strides on path for women migrant workers in eastern India - India News  | The Financial Express

Central Idea:

The article highlights the often overlooked and underreported aspects of female migration in India, particularly in the context of internal migration. It emphasizes the need for a more accurate understanding of the challenges faced by migrant women, their motivations, and employment status, ultimately advocating for better-informed policies to address their specific needs.

Key Highlights:

  • Migrant women in India are a significant but marginalized group, with national surveys providing an inaccurate portrayal of their motivations and employment status.
  • Existing data underestimates the number of migrant women engaged in casual or informal employment due to definitional issues and societal beliefs.
  • The article argues that the entry of women into the formal labor force is hindered by factors such as low education levels, lack of social networks post-migration, and the need for more human and social capital.
  • Despite a 101% increase in female migration for labor/employment between 2001 and 2011, there is a lack of targeted policies and political attention for this demographic.
  • The article suggests that policy-making needs to be more informed about the specific needs, motivations, and conditions of female migrants.

Key Challenges:

  • Inaccurate representation in national surveys leading to a lack of understanding of the secondary motivations for migration among women.
  • Underreporting of employment status due to definitional issues and societal beliefs about women’s roles.
  • Barriers to entry into the formal labor force, including low education levels, lack of social networks, and the need for more human and social capital.
  • Marginalization of female migrant issues in policy-making due to their limited influence as a vote bank.

Key Terms:

  • Female Labour Force Participation Rate (FLFPR)
  • Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS)
  • Casual labor
  • Human and social capital
  • One Nation One ration card
  • e-Shram
  • Affordable rental housing complexes

Key Phrases:

  • “Female migration for labor/employment increased by 101% between 2001 and 2011.”
  • “Migrant women are proportionally less employed than non-migrant women.”
  • “Entry to the formal labor force is challenging for migrant women due to the need for more human and social capital.”
  • “Dismal recovery of women’s labor activity after the pandemic.”
  • “Policy-making poorly informed about the needs, motivations, and conditions of female migrants.”

Key Quotes:

  • “There is little dialogue surrounding female migrant issues.”
  • “Despite recent polls, political parties do not campaign to gain migrant women’s votes.”
  • “Women choose forms of employment that allow them to handle domestic duties while contributing to the household’s production or finances.”
  • “A change in narrative is required, starting with increased collection of female-specific data.”

Anecdotes:

  • Anecdotal evidence suggests that migrant women often engage in casual employment, indicating underestimation of their involvement in various sectors.
  • Women may view unpaid family work or self-employment as an extension of domestic commitment, leading to misreporting of employment status.

Key Statements:

  • “National surveys convey an inaccurate picture of female migration, especially regarding motivations and employment status.”
  • “Entry to the formal labor force is hindered by factors such as low education levels and lack of social networks.”
  • “Female migrants remain largely invisible, facing significant hurdles and marginalization.”
  • “Political parties do not address the needs of female migrants, resulting in poorly informed policy-making.”

Way Forward:

  • Compile more information in national surveys regarding socio-economic conditions post-migration, including access to social security benefits.
  • Advocate for the collection of time-use data for migrants to better understand the employment patterns of female migrants.
  • Increase awareness about the challenges faced by female migrants to encourage progressive policymaking.
  • Address barriers to entry into the formal labor force by focusing on education, social networks, and human and social capital.
  • Encourage a change in narrative and prioritize the needs of female migrants in policy-making.

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