From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS)
Mains level : There is little dialogue surrounding female migrant issues
The article highlights the often overlooked and underreported aspects of female migration in India, particularly in the context of internal migration. It emphasizes the need for a more accurate understanding of the challenges faced by migrant women, their motivations, and employment status, ultimately advocating for better-informed policies to address their specific needs.
- Migrant women in India are a significant but marginalized group, with national surveys providing an inaccurate portrayal of their motivations and employment status.
- Existing data underestimates the number of migrant women engaged in casual or informal employment due to definitional issues and societal beliefs.
- The article argues that the entry of women into the formal labor force is hindered by factors such as low education levels, lack of social networks post-migration, and the need for more human and social capital.
- Despite a 101% increase in female migration for labor/employment between 2001 and 2011, there is a lack of targeted policies and political attention for this demographic.
- The article suggests that policy-making needs to be more informed about the specific needs, motivations, and conditions of female migrants.
- Inaccurate representation in national surveys leading to a lack of understanding of the secondary motivations for migration among women.
- Underreporting of employment status due to definitional issues and societal beliefs about women’s roles.
- Barriers to entry into the formal labor force, including low education levels, lack of social networks, and the need for more human and social capital.
- Marginalization of female migrant issues in policy-making due to their limited influence as a vote bank.
- Female Labour Force Participation Rate (FLFPR)
- Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS)
- Casual labor
- Human and social capital
- One Nation One ration card
- Affordable rental housing complexes
- “Female migration for labor/employment increased by 101% between 2001 and 2011.”
- “Migrant women are proportionally less employed than non-migrant women.”
- “Entry to the formal labor force is challenging for migrant women due to the need for more human and social capital.”
- “Dismal recovery of women’s labor activity after the pandemic.”
- “Policy-making poorly informed about the needs, motivations, and conditions of female migrants.”
- “There is little dialogue surrounding female migrant issues.”
- “Despite recent polls, political parties do not campaign to gain migrant women’s votes.”
- “Women choose forms of employment that allow them to handle domestic duties while contributing to the household’s production or finances.”
- “A change in narrative is required, starting with increased collection of female-specific data.”
- Anecdotal evidence suggests that migrant women often engage in casual employment, indicating underestimation of their involvement in various sectors.
- Women may view unpaid family work or self-employment as an extension of domestic commitment, leading to misreporting of employment status.
- “National surveys convey an inaccurate picture of female migration, especially regarding motivations and employment status.”
- “Entry to the formal labor force is hindered by factors such as low education levels and lack of social networks.”
- “Female migrants remain largely invisible, facing significant hurdles and marginalization.”
- “Political parties do not address the needs of female migrants, resulting in poorly informed policy-making.”
- Compile more information in national surveys regarding socio-economic conditions post-migration, including access to social security benefits.
- Advocate for the collection of time-use data for migrants to better understand the employment patterns of female migrants.
- Increase awareness about the challenges faced by female migrants to encourage progressive policymaking.
- Address barriers to entry into the formal labor force by focusing on education, social networks, and human and social capital.
- Encourage a change in narrative and prioritize the needs of female migrants in policy-making.