Policy implementation in India : Issues


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Not much

Mains level : Paper 2- Policy implementation and monitoring

Policy implementation matters as much as the policy itself. The article highlights the importance of monitoring system to track the implementation of the policies.

Implementing policy

  • It is taken for granted that a government policy or social-development program, is meant to be perfectly executed.
  • Implementation is the key and ends up with sub-par results and uncompleted projects.
  • India has had mixed experiences post-Independence, the consolidated development chart will appear rather skewed.
  • Millions continue to live in abject poverty, deprived of basic amenities.

Dealing with implementation deficit

  • India needs to work on the implementation and reforms processes in a wider manner, with the primary aim of attaining fast-paced development and effective delivery of the intended public benefits.
  • The first requirement would be a capable implementing machine — or what has been called the “perfect administration”, driven by passionate team leaders.
  • The guiding urge should be to complete the task before schedule.
  • Other critical determinants include:
  • Unambiguous demarcation of responsibilities.
  • Frequent brainstorming sessions to anticipate and take formal note of likely challenges and agreeing upon solutions.
  • Ensuring and authorizing a largely freehand with matching resources, and the ability to make on-the-spot decisions.
  • The evergreen strategy to make the implementation of a near-perfect process is to build in a vigilant monitoring and evaluation mechanism.
  • A dynamic monitoring mechanism makes use of technology, which today is being built into various flagship programs initiated by the present government.

Achieving implementation

  • In the interest of achieving wholesome implementation, it would be desirable to set up an autonomous “Monitoring Trust”.
  • The trust will act as an integral part of all important public policies and programs.
  • The proposed Trust can comprise core technical, administrative, and legal members, along with stakeholders and social activists.
  • Engaging stakeholders and implementers, through various methodologies, is fast emerging as an effective strategy.
  • Sharing information and progress through dashboards and other technology tools, inviting suggestions through IT portals like MyGov democratize and enrich both policy formulation and execution.
  • The institutions and methodologies developed in Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana present an exemplary fusion between human ingenuity and the miracles of customized technology.


The political leadership both at the national and the state level is the most crucial force behind the success of the implementation machinery. An endeavor’s effective implementation alone can provide the converge with good governance, bold innovation, rewarding delivery, and the transformation of marginalized human lives.

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