From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Not much
Mains level : Paper 2- India-U.S. ties
This article analyses what the new shift in the India-U.S. ties will require for the mutual benefit.
Following 12 factors would influence the depth and longevity of the India-U.S. ties.
1) Outcome of the U.S. Presidential elections
- The success of India’s new bonding with the U.S. will depend on the outcome of the U.S. Presidential elections.
- The Democratic party candidate with the Left wing and liberals in the U.S. has been highly critical of the Citizenship (Amendment) Act.
2) Need to build trust with the U.S.
- India purchased of the S-400 air defence missile system from Russia disregarding the U.S. concerns.
- India refused to send Indian troops to Afghanistan.
- We need to build trust with the U.S. that we will give to the U.S. as good as it gives us.
- For this structuring we must realise that India-U.S. relations require give and take on both sides.
- What India needs to take today is for dealing with the Ladakh confrontation with China.
- India needs U.S. hardware military equipment.
3) Fighting the U.S. enemy in neighbourhood
- The U.S. needs India to fight her enemies in the neighbourhood such as in Afghanistan.
- India should send two divisions gradually to Afghanistan and relieve U.S. troops to go home
4) Intelligence sharing and cooperation
- India needs the support of the U.S. and its ally, Israel, in cyberwarfare, satellite mappings of China and Pakistan.
- There is a need for sharing intercepts of electronic communication, hard intelligence on terrorists, and controlling the military and the Inter-Services Intelligence in Pakistan.
5) Developing naval bases
- India needs the U.S. to completely develop the Andaman & Nicobar, and also the Lakshadweep Islands as a naval and air force base.
- These naval bases can be used by the U.S and shared along with its allies such as Indonesia and Japan.
6) Economic relations and India’s concerns
- The economic relations must be based on macroeconomic commercial principles.
- Free, indiscriminate flow of U.S. foreign direct investment (FDI) is not in India’s national interest.
7) Technology sharing
- India needs technologies such as thorium utilisation, desalination of sea water, and hydrogen fuel cells.
8) U.S. should allow import of agricultural product
- The U.S. must allow India’s exports of agricultural products including Bos indicus milk, which are of highly competitive prices in the world.
9) FDI in India
- FDI should be allowed into India selectively from abroad, including from the U.S.
- FDI in India should be based on the economic theory of comparative advantage and not on subsidies and gratis.
- Tariffs of both India and the U.S. should be lowered, and the Indian rupee should be gradually revalued to ₹35 to a dollar.
- Later, with the economy picking up, the rupee rate should go below 10 to the dollar.
11) Stay away from certain issues
- India should not provide the U.S. with our troops to enter Tibet, or be involved in the Hong Kong and Taiwan issue.
- There is always a possibility of a leadership change in China.
- Thus, China’s policy changed very favourably towards India.
- In the cases of Tibet, Taiwan, and Hong Kong, we have made explicit agreements.
- In the case of Tibet, two formal treaties were signed by Nehru (1954) and A.B. Vajpayee (2003).
12) Trilateral commitment to world peace
- In the long run, India, the U.S., and China should form a trilateral commitment for world peace provided Chinese current international policies undergo a healthy change.
Consider the question “What are the factors influencing the India-U.S. ties? Suggest the pathway to address the issues that hamper the deepening of India-U.S. ties.”
Both countries need to recognise each other’s concern and work towards the deepening of the ties for the mutual benefit and with a view to dealing with the challenges confronting both the countries.