Digital India Initiatives

A telco double dip attempt that threatens Net neutrality


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : TRAI

Mains level : Net Neutrality

Central idea

The article discusses the telecom industry’s revenue challenges due to free OTT services, the debate over regulating OTT platforms, and the concern for net neutrality. Telecom’s call for OTT platforms to share bandwidth costs is critiqued as a threat to net neutrality principles, with a focus on the way forward involving global collaboration, innovation-friendly policies, and digital literacy initiatives for an open and informed digital landscape.

What is net neutrality?

  • Net neutrality is the principle that Internet service providers must treat all data on the Internet the same way, without discriminating or charging differently based on the type of content or websites.
  • It ensures equal and unbiased access to online information, preventing providers from favoring or blocking particular websites or services. Net neutrality aims to maintain an open and level playing field on the Internet, promoting fair competition, innovation, and equal access for all users.

Net Neutrality:

Key Highlights:

  • TRAI Consultation: TRAI, at the government’s request, initiated a consultation on regulating Over-The-Top (OTT) services, sparking debates over telecom companies’ revenue challenges and the need for regulation.
  • Telecom Revenue Pressure: Telecom companies face declining revenue from traditional services due to free competing OTT services, coupled with heavy infrastructure investments for increased data traffic.
  • Net Neutrality Concerns: Telecom companies argue for OTT services like Netflix to share bandwidth costs, raising concerns about net neutrality principles and an uneven playing field.

Prelims focus


Formation: The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) was established on February 20, 1997.


Regulatory Body: TRAI is the regulatory body for the telecommunications industry in India, responsible for ensuring fair competition, protecting consumer interests, and promoting the orderly growth of the telecom sector.


Autonomous Body: TRAI operates as an autonomous body, independent of government control, to maintain transparency and impartiality in its regulatory functions.


Chairperson and Members: TRAI is headed by a Chairperson and consists of six full-time members and two part-time members, each appointed by the central government.


Key Functions: TRAI formulates regulations and recommendations related to tariffs, quality of service, licensing, and other aspects of the telecom sector. It also resolves disputes between service providers.



  • Revenue Strain: Telecom companies claim OTT services strain their revenue as consumers opt for free alternatives, impacting their ability to recover infrastructure costs.
  • Taxation Disparity: Telecom companies argue that OTT services are not subjected to the same level of taxation and licensing fees, creating an imbalance.
  • Double Dipping: The demand for OTT platforms to share bandwidth costs is criticized as a double-dipping strategy, challenging the principles of net neutrality.


  • Undermining Net Neutrality: The argument for OTT platforms to contribute to bandwidth costs is seen as a threat to net neutrality, challenging the equal treatment of internet traffic.
  • Consumer Impact: Compliance with telecom demands could lead to increased subscription fees or degraded service quality for OTT users, negatively impacting consumers.


  • Infrastructure Investment: Telecom companies argue that they invest in infrastructure, but OTT services also contribute to increased data consumption, creating a growing revenue stream for telecom.
  • Separation of Markets: The article argues for maintaining a separation of costs between OTT services and Internet access, considering them as distinct markets.
  • Flawed Telecom Argument: The article deems the telecom argument for sharing costs with OTT platforms as flawed, highlighting that telecoms provide access to the internet but do not own it.

Key Data:

  • Over a Decade: Telecom companies have faced revenue pressure for over a decade as traditional services decline.
  • 72 Million Users: TRAI’s regulation on discriminatory tariffs in 2016 forced the withdrawal of platforms like Facebook’s Free Basics, impacting around 72 million users.

Key Terms:

  • OTT Services: Over-The-Top services like Netflix and Amazon Prime that deliver content over the internet without traditional distribution methods.
  • Net Neutrality: The principle that Internet service providers must treat all internet traffic equally, without discrimination or preferential treatment.

Way Forward:

  • Upholding Net Neutrality: Policymakers and stakeholders should recognize the importance of upholding net neutrality for fostering innovation, competition, and consumer welfare in the digital era.
  • Long-term Ramifications: Consideration of the long-term impact is crucial, emphasizing that preserving an open internet is integral to the success of Digital Public Infrastructure in countries like India.
  • Global Collaboration: Advocate for net neutrality through global cooperation, establishing common principles for an open internet worldwide.
  • Innovation-Friendly Policies: Craft policies that encourage innovation, balancing the interests of telecom and OTT sectors for a competitive and sustainable digital ecosystem.
  • Digital Literacy: Invest in digital literacy to empower users, educating them about net neutrality implications and promoting an informed and engaged digital community.

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