Digital India Initiatives

Jul, 05, 2018

[pib] Three lakh CSC VLEs to be engaged as Banking Correspondents


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Digital India, CSC VLEs, Digi Gaon Project, Stree Swabhiman

Mains level: The newscard highlights the multi-pronged strategy of development through promoting village level entrepreneurs under Digital India Initiative.


Common Service Center (CSC), a Special Purpose Vehicle under the Ministry of Electronics & IT, has entered into an agreement with HDFC Bank to enable its three lakh Village Level Entrepreneurs (VLEs) managing the CSCs to operate as Banking Correspondents.

Making banking services more accessible in rural areas

  1. VLEs of CSC will work as Banking Correspondent of HDFC Bank and support the govt initiative to promote financial inclusion and make banking services more accessible in rural areas.
  2. This agreement is expected to be a game changer as it would significantly contribute to Government’s objectives of enabling Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) of various schemes.
  3. Women, senior citizens and persons with disability will especially get benefitted through this initiative.
  4. This will facilitate withdrawal and deposit of government entitlements such as payments under MGNREGA as well as various social welfare schemes like widow pension, handicapped and old age pension, etc.

Providing easy Credit Facility

  1. The HDFC BC (CSC) under this arrangement will also function as Business Facilitator (BF).
  2. This will help and support the citizens, especially merchants, youth, entrepreneurs, farmers and women avail loan facility from the Bank to support in their economic uplift.

 Promoting Digi Gaon Project

  1. Apart from this, HDFC Bank will support CSC SPV in converting 1000 identified villages into Digi Gaon (Digital Villages) within this financial year.
  2. CSC SPV is implementing Digi Gaon initiative in rural and remote villages of the country where citizens can avail various online services of the central and State government.
  3. The Digi Gaons are positioned to promote rural entrepreneurship and building rural capacities and livelihoods through community participation and collective action for engendering social change through a bottom-up approach with key focus on the rural citizen.

Promoting Stree Swabhiman

  1. Under its’ commitment to enhancing women’s health and hygiene, HDFC Bank will also support CSC SPV by funding Stree Swabhiman Sanitary Napkin Manufacturing Units.
  2. CSC SPV, through its initiative ‘Stree Swabhiman’ is striving to create a sustainable model for providing affordable and accessible sanitary products close to the homes of adolescent girls and women in rural areas
Jul, 03, 2018

2021 census data to be stored electronically


Mains Paper 1: Social issues | Population & associated issues

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Census of India

Mains level: Read the attached story


Electronic format

  1. The data collected during the 2021 Census will be stored electronically, the first time since the decennial exercise was conducted in 1951 in Independent India.
  2. According to an amended rule notified by the Registrar General of India (RGI), “The schedules and other connected papers shall be disposed of totally or in part by the Director of Census Operations, after creating an electronic record of such documents.”

Any tampering will be a Punishable Offence

  1. Till now the “schedules” (a tabular form containing details of individuals), carried by enumerators to households, were being stored in a physical form at the government’s storehouse in Delhi.
  2. It is based on these schedules that the relevant statistical information on population, language, and occupation are sorted and published.
  3. The records running into crores of pages were occupying space in the government office and it has now been decided that they will be stored in an electronic format.
  4. Any tampering with the data will invite punishment under the Information Technology Act, 2000

Gearing Up for 2021 Census

  1. Enumerators will start “house listing” in 2020 and the headcount will begin from February 2021 onwards.
  2. An individual’s household data is not published by the RGI. They are published in the form of tables on the Census website. The data is preserved for 10 years and then it is destroyed.
  3. From 2021 Census it will be stored forever in electronic format.
Jul, 02, 2018

[pib] National Generic Document Registration System adopted in Punjab and Andaman& Nicobar Islands


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: NGDRS

Mains level: Not Much


  1. The Union Minister for Rural Development, Panchayati Raj and Mines has inaugurated NGDRS in all sub-registrar offices in Andaman & Nicobar Islands from New Delhi through a Video-Conferencing.
  2. To aptly address the diversity and variations prevailing across the States on account of languages, processes, formulae and formats the NGDRS has been formed.

National Generic Document Registration System

  1. State-wide inauguration of the NGDRS was done by the State Government on 27th June 2018 with the technical assistance and collaboration of NIC including its software development unit at NIC Pune.
  2. This generic customizable software, when universally adopted in the Country, will enable ‘anywhere access’ to data and information to both the common man and the enforcement and regulatory agencies.
  3. Transparency will be promoted due to registration through digital means and people will get the benefits in a hassle-free manner.
  4. The NGDRS system has been piloted in 3 States (Punjab, Rajasthan, Maharashtra). 6 more states and UTs (Goa, A&N Islands, Bihar, Jharkhand, Manipur, Mizoram) are moving towards this system.
  5. The Department is presently focussing on implementation of NGDRS in these 14 States, to optimally use the available funds in a cost-effective, productive and time-bound manner.

Digital India Land Records Modernization Programme (DILRMP)

  1. The DILRMP aims to digitize the maps, integrate the textual and spatial data, carry out the surveys to update the records by using latest available techniques including GIS mapping.
  2. More emphasis is being given to verification and establishing conclusive ownership including use of Biometric identification using Aadhaar and use of blockchain technology.
  3. With its priority to updated and error-free land records and easy access to information thereto, Government of India made the DILRMP into a cent per cent centrally-funded central sector scheme from 01st April 2016.
Jun, 27, 2018

Why ‘Digital India’ remains a distant dream


Mains Paper 2: Governance | e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, & potential

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Despite ambitious targets for Digital India, only a privileged minority is able to access digital services in the country. This raises questions on the success of the mission as well as other reforms connected to it that are in pipeline


Internet coverage still inadequate

  1. India continues to lag behind peer countries when it comes to internet penetration
  2. Only one in four Indian adults either owns a smartphone or uses the internet occasionally
  3. India scrapes the bottom of a list of 39 large economies considered in the survey, which include both developed and emerging markets
  4. India also ranked among the very lowest, just above Tanzania, in terms of the percentage of adults owning a smartphone

Internet usage linkages

  1. India’s slow adoption of smartphones has impeded the spread of internet in the country since most Indians tend to access the internet on their mobiles
  2. Mobile phones can be extremely important tools—whether (in) helping people gain access to financial services or providing the much-needed assistance with health and agricultural needs
  3. The share of those using digital payments remains among the lowest in India, according to a World Bank survey published earlier this year
Jun, 05, 2018

NITI Aayog proposes model to adopt AI for inclusive growth


Mains Paper 3: Inclusive growth and issues arising from it

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: AI, Big Data

Mains level: Utility of AI for Inclusive Growth


NITI Aayog’s National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence

  1. India needs to create new jobs to absorb the large number of workers rendered redundant by automation and put in place a regulatory framework.
  2. This will help reap benefits of artificial intelligence use in areas such as health, farming, education, infrastructure and transportation.
  3. In a ‘national strategy for AI’, prepared to give the country an edge in this area, Niti Aayog suggested ways to promote adoption of machine learning in key areas of the economy guided by rules on ethics, privacy and intellectual property protection that are to be evolved by new institutions.

AI for Inclusive Growth

  1. The think tank said its blueprint was aimed at leveraging AI for economic growth, social development and inclusive growth and to make the country a model for emerging and developing economies.
  2. The blueprint suggested that a robust model to use this technology will increase access and affordability of quality healthcare, enhance farmers’ income and reduce wastage, improve access to quality education, provide efficient connectivity to the urban population and help create smarter transportation modes.
  3. Promotion of job creation in new areas like data annotation needs to be identified and promoted, as these would have the potential of absorbing a large portion of the workforce that may find itself redundant due to increasing automation.

Addressing Job Concerns

  1. The proposals come at a time when there is widespread concern about job losses on account of automation although it would result in new jobs, which require higher level of technical skills.
  2. As technology increasingly disrupts the nature of jobs and shifts the benchmarks of technological aptitude, skilling and reskilling of workforce forms an integral part of our approach to adopting artificial intelligence said the strategy paper.

The Way Forward

  1. While promoting use of AI, which is driven by big data, development of new technology and products has to be based on fairness, accountability and transparency
  2. Data is one of the primary drivers of artificial intelligence solutions, and thus appropriate handling of data, ensuring privacy and security is of prime importance.
  3. Challenges include data usage without consent, risk of identification of individuals through data and data selection bias
May, 08, 2018

Niti Aayog partners with Google to grow India’s artificial intelligence ecosystem


Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

From the UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of the programme, Machine Learning

Mains level: Harnessing AI for the overall economic productivity of the nation


Fostering AI Ecosystem in India

  1. The government think-tank Niti Aayog said that it will be working with tech giant Google to develop AI-based solutions aimed at improving the overall economic productivity of the nation
  2. The move is aimed at fostering growth for India’s nascent AI and machine learning (ML) ecosystem, said Niti Aayog
  3. India is embracing future technologies such as machine learning and AI to augment its capacity in health care, improve outcomes in education, develop innovative governance systems for our citizens and improve overall economic productivity of the nation.
  4. While announcing the budget, finance minister had said that Niti Aayog will setup a national programme to conduct research and development in frontier technologies such as AI

Committees on AI

  1. In February, the IT ministry formed four AI committees on –
  • citizen-centric services
  • data platforms, skilling, reskilling and R&D
  • legal regulatory
  • cybersecurity

2. These committees would be headed by IIT director and industry experts from bodies such as Nasscom

3. The ministry will “coordinate” with Niti Aayog on this

Particulars of the programme

  1. Niti’s partnership with Google will unlock massive training initiatives, support start-ups and encourage AI research through PhD scholarships, all of which contributes to the larger idea of a technologically-empowered New India
  2. Under the aegis of this program, Google will train and incubate Indian AI start-ups in an accelerator program
  3. These start-ups will be mentored and coached by Google and its affiliates to enable them to better leverage AI in their respective business models


Machine Learning

  1. Machine learning is the science of getting computers to act without being explicitly programmed.
  2. It is an application of artificial intelligence (AI) that provides systems the ability to automatically learn and improve from experience without being explicitly programmed.
  3. Machine learning focuses on the development of computer programs that can access data and use it learn for themselves.
  4. The process of learning begins with observations or data, such as examples, direct experience, or instruction, in order to look for patterns in data and make better decisions in the future based on the examples that we provide.
  5. In the past decade, machine learning has given us self-driving cars, practical speech recognition, effective web search, etc.
  6. Examples: Google Assistant, Google Allo etc.
May, 04, 2018

EPFO Introduces 'View Pension Passbook' Service for the pensioners through Umang App


Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: UMANG app, e-services offered by EPFO

Mains level: Govt initiative to go paperless


New initiative: Pension Passbook Service

  1. Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO), which is providing a host of e-services for its stakeholders, has now introduced a new service through ‘UMANG app
  2. On clicking ‘View Passbook’ option, it requires PPO Number and Date of Birth information to be entered by the pensioner
  3. After successful validation of the information fed, an OTP will be sent to the registered mobile number of the pensioner
  4. On entering OTP, ‘Pensioner Passbook’ will display the details of the pensioner like Name, DOB along with last pension credited information
  5. The facility to download the financial year wise complete passbook details is also available


Unified Mobile Application for New-age Governance (UMANG) app

  1. UMANG is a Government of India all-in-one single unified secure multi-channel multi-platform multi-lingual multi-service freeware mobile app for accessing over 1,200 central and state government services.
  2. This is a key component of Digital India government initiative to make all traditional offline government services available 24/7 online through a single unified app.
  3. This e-governance app was developed by Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) and National e-Governance Division (NeGD) in 2016 and launched in November 2017.
  4. The services include as AADHAR, DigiLocker, Bharat Bill Payment System, PAN, EPFO services, PMKVY services, AICTE, CBSE, tax and fee or utility bills payments, education, job search, tax, business, health, agriculture, travel, birth certificates, e-District, passport and much more
  5. Sample usage of the app includes locating CBSE exam centers, viewing school results, calculating crop insurance premium, accessing soil health cards, booking OPD appointments at government hospitals and viewing lab reports from there, registering and applying for the various schemes, raising EPFO claims and etc.
Apr, 21, 2018

e-Vidhan mission mode project to make functioning of State Legislatures in India paperless


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Particulars of the e-vidhan project

Mains level: Expected benefits of the e-vidhan project.


Inauguration of the project and new office of the Central Project Monitoring Unit for e-Vidhan project 

  1. The Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs has inaugurated new office of Central Project Monitoring Unit for e-Vidhan project of Government at Parliament House Annexe
  2. This was done as a part of Swachhata Pakhwada being observed by the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs from 16th to 30th April, 2018
  3. The Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs is the nodal ministry for the project
  4. It is taking all necessary steps for rolling out project in all states
  5. One of the key component of the strategy devised for implementation of the project is to create Project Monitoring Units both at Central as well as State levels.

e-Vidhan project

  1. It is a project to digitize and make functioning of State Legislatures in India paperless
  2. It is a part of broader Digital India initiative of the Central Government
  3. It is likely to contribute to cleanliness and environment by reducing the use of papers to a great extent
Apr, 12, 2018

‘Digital transformation to add $154 billion to India’s GDP’


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Growth

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial intelligence (AI)

Mains level: Digital transformation and its possible impacts on economy


Impact of digital transformation

  1. Within the next four years, it is estimated that nearly 60% of India’s GDP will have a strong connection to the digital transformation trends
  2. Digital transformation will add an estimated $154 billion to India’s GDP by 2021
  3. It would also increase the growth rate by 1% every year

Current scenario

  1. In 2017, about 4% of India’s GDP was derived from digital products and services created through digital technologies
  2. This was from digital products and services created directly through the use of digital technologies, such as mobility, cloud, Internet of Things (IoT), and artificial intelligence (AI)


Internet of Things (IoT)

  1. IoT is the network of physical devices, vehicles, home appliances and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and connectivity which enables these objects to connect and exchange data
  2. Each thing is uniquely identifiable through its embedded computing system but is able to inter-operate within the existing Internet infrastructure
  3. The IoT allows objects to be sensed or controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure
  4. When IoT is augmented with sensors and actuators, the technology becomes an instance of the more general class of cyber-physical systems, which also encompasses technologies such as smart grids, virtual power plants, smart homes, intelligent transportation and smart cities
Jan, 11, 2018

[pib] BharatNet Phase 1: Target Achieved Through Meticulous Planning and Focused Implementation at Ground Level


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: BharatNet

Mains level: Digital India program and its successes


  • Government has achieved a significant milestone under the BharatNet by completing Phase-1 of the project by connecting over one lakh Gram Panchayats (GP) across the country with high-speed optical fibre network
  • BharatNet network built under Phase 1 envisages delivery of high-speed broadband services in over 2.5 lakh villages benefitting more than 200 million rural Indians.

Vision & Mission

  • The project will generate massive employment opportunities both direct and indirect in the country in days to come
  • To provide affordable broadband services to citizens and institutions in rural and remote areas, in partnership with States and the private sector
  •  BharatNet infrastructure is expected to catalyse digital delivery of services for the rural poor – viz. health, education, livelihood, skills, e-agriculture and e-commerce
  • The tariff for BharatNet was also revised to attract more Telecom Service Providers (TSPs) to use the infrastructure to provide high-speed broadband services in the rural areas through Wi-Fi, FTTH, and for developing utilisation models by TSPs and Common Service Centres (CSC)
Dec, 26, 2017

Online platform for employees to access all service details


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Important aspects of governance, transparency & accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, & potential

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: e-HRMS

Mains level: Measures being taken to enhance public delivery


Online platform for central government employees

  1. An online platform has been launched for central government employees to apply for leave and access their service-related information
  2. The platform is called electronic-Human Resource Management System (e-HRMS) 

About the platform

  1. Employees will be able to see all their details with respect to service book, leave, GPF, salary, etc.
  2. They will also be able to apply for different kind of claims/reimbursements, loan/advances, leave, leave encashment, LTC advances, tour etc. on a single platform
  3. Employees shall not be dependent on the administration for updating data


  1. It will instil more responsibility and accountability among all government servants
  2. The availability of online data of employees will help the organisation to take many administrative decisions easily like planning of recruitments, posting of officials to a task as per their experience and qualification
  3. It will also help employees to concentrate more on public service once free from personal anxiety of getting their work done
  4. This will, in turn, enhance public delivery and more employees will be available for the core work of the government
  5. The availability of centralized data will enable government for policy research and planning as such educational qualifications and other competencies and deficiencies may be easily obtained
Nov, 21, 2017

[op-ed snap] Reaching the bottom of India’s digital pyramid


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Issues which are halting the targets of Digital India, requirements of people for adopting digital services



  1. The article talks about the issues related to Digitization
  2. And what the requirements of people are(of using digital services)

How Digitization has received a significant policy push in India?

  1. There has been an emphasis on
    (1) linking bank accounts and mobile number with Aadhaar
    (2) maintaining digital records,
    (3) enforcing digital payments through demonetization or Aadhaar-enabled payments systems
    (4) and making digitization as one of the core requirements in GST (goods and services tax) filings

Is this policy push enough for becoming a digital economy?

  1. The policy push towards digitization is one leg of the story
  2. Its success crucially depends also on its adoption by the majority of the population living in far-flung rural areas
  3. Without that, it can’t be achieved

Digitization through Smartphones

  1. Smartphones are expected to share the bulk of the workload in digital India
  2. However, their share currently is around 33% of the mobile users (expected to reach around 40% by 2019)
  3. The mobile phone internet user penetration among Indian population is still about 24% and even by 2020 is expected to reach just 35%
  4. These figures point to an opportunity for digital inclusion for sure, but there are many issues

Issues which are halting the targets of Digital India
(1) Financial exclusion of a significant part of the population

  1. There are still snags in the outreach of Indian financial system where digitization is expected to play an enabling role
  2. A recent study by Assocham and EY reports that 19% of the Indian population remains unbanked or financially excluded
  3. Without addressing issues like this will only magnify the digital inequality in the country

(2) Uninterrupted access to power

  1. Uninterrupted access to power is an essential ingredient to fuel a digital economy. However, existing statistics look somewhat disappointing
  2. Around 22% of rural households (roughly 40 million) across the country still do not have access to electricity

What should be done?
capacity of Digitization tools

  1. Users with prior working knowledge of internet and smartphone applications are more likely to accept digitization tools
  2. It emphasizes the need for internet and mobile application training aimed at less educated and the low-income groups

Need based technological tools

  1. People has opined that digitization tools and technology should meet their needs
  2. t emphasizes the need to identify the requirements of people at the bottom of the digital pyramid which could get served by digitization, take it to them and incorporate their views to enhance its acceptance (co-creation to be precise)

Service charges on digitization services

  1. The service charges should be commensurate with the benefits of digitization
  2. It will continue to remain a challenge for people at the bottom of the digital pyramid who stay stretched to make both ends meet on a daily basis

Ensuring security would increase adaptability

  1. Existence of technological and legal institutions to ensure security would increase adaptability
  2. The right to privacy is possibly the first step in that direction
  3. A beginning no doubt, but it will take time before India’s data protection regime comes on a par with standards set in jurisdictions like the European Union or the US

Education standards

  1. Last but not the least, the aptitude to read, write, comprehend and communicate is a must to participate in the digitization movement
  2. India’s current literacy rate is at 80%, and there are expectations of achieving 100% over the next five years
  3. However, literacy would lead to participation and empowerment in a digital India only when it can ensure lifelong reading ability
Nov, 16, 2017

[op-ed snap] The long road to cashless India

Image Source


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: UPI, IMPS etc.

Mains level: Complement this article with other newcards curated by us on the same issue of cashless economy



  1. The article talks about the PPIs and the UPI-based apps usefulness in making India a cashless economy
  2. It also talks about some challenges

Future of online payments

  1. According to some experts, debit cards, credit cards and ATMs becoming redundant in the next three to four years
  2. Since demonetisation, the government has been working to make India a cashless economy
  3. With the ubiquity of Aadhaar, smartphones and the new unified payments interface (UPI)-based apps, it wants to move on from cash to a digital payments economy—where everything from payment to receipt is done online

Data on different payment systems

  1. While debit and credit cards continue to dominate retail digital payments, the UPI and prepaid payment instruments (PPIs) are catching up
  2. Between 2014-15 and 2016-17, the share of PPIs in total volume of card transactions increased from 18% to 36%
  3. Then, in August 2016 came UPI, based on banks’ immediate payment service (IMPS)
  4. It linked the user’s various bank accounts to a single mobile application, doing away with the need to recharge a wallet
  5. UPI transaction volumes have increased from 4.2 million in January to 30 million in September 2017 (growing 85% between August and September itself)

Competition between PPIs and UPI

  1. While PPIs still have much higher volumes (87 million) right now, UPI is eating into their share as well as that of cards
  2. This is expected to continue with the launch of UPI 2.0, which will bring the ease of pre-authorized deductions for recurring payments, like cab rides, to UPI, along with a possible increase in the transaction limit from the present Rs1 lakh
  3. Major PPIs have already integrated UPI into their service so as to not lose customers to competing UPI-only apps

A prerequisite to a less-cash economy is financial inclusion

  1. The Jan Dhan Yojana (JDY) had laudably managed to open 294 million bank accounts as of August 2017
  2. But a quarter of them remain zero-balance inoperative accounts
  3. If people received income in their bank accounts and could spend digitally, they could go cashless. But most people work in the informal economy and get paid in cash
  4. Then there is the scarce use of mobile payment platforms
  5. Most product vendors still don’t use a mobile platform to receive payments because there are limited use-cases for digital money
  6. Finally, mobile wallets are largely designed for use on smartphones, and 56% of Indians still use feature phones
  7. Given the frequent power outages, poor connectivity and low income, smartphones have limited utility for most people

Contribution of the Payment Banks

  1. India has been unable to increase accessibility to banks within the formal banking system; only 27% villages have a bank branch within 5km
  2. But the increase in the number of payment banks can bring the basic banking functions of securing deposits, providing an ATM-debit card and allowing access to online payment gateways

The way forward

  1. Interoperability across PPIs may increase adoption by vendors and, therefore, increase the use-cases for people
  2. But the largely informal nature of the economy, the preponderance of feature phones and the old habit of using cash are enduring problems that will keep the cashless economy from spreading outside urban centres for many years
Nov, 07, 2017

One year of demonetisation: Digital transactions fail to gather steam after initial surge

Image source


Mains Paper 3: Economy | Growth

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Unified Payment Interface (UPI), NPCI, BHIM (Bharat Interface for Money), electronic personal consumption expenditure (ePCE), Bharat QR Scan, GST

Mains level: Digitization initiatives by government and their results


Digital transactions see a dip

  1. After an initial surge in digital payments, largely attributed to a shortage of cash in the banking system, digital transactions have seen a dip
  2. This indicates a slow reversal in the usage of digital platforms
  3. This is despite doubling of point of sale (PoS) machines in merchant establishments across the country
  4. Mobile wallets have also seen a dip in volumes and value of transactions after the initial surge

UPI platform also not gaining pace

  1. Unified Payment Interface (UPI), the payment platform of NPCIpromoted by RBI — had a slow takeoff even after the launch of BHIM (Bharat Interface for Money), which uses the UPI platform
  2. The value of transactions through UPI are much below one percent of the total electronic payments in the country

Not a complete switch back 

  1. Bankers and analysts said a complete switch back to pre-November 8 trends has not happened
  2. It shows the possibility that there has been some behavioral change in transactions patterns
  3. At a modest 11 percent, the country’s electronic personal consumption expenditure (ePCE) rate is a far cry from some leading economies with ePCE rates upwards of 60 percent

All household having credit/debit cards still less digital transactions

  1. With over 800 million debit cards and over 30 million credit cards in the market, almost every household in India now has access to a digital payment
  2. This has not yet translated into digital transactions
  3. At 3 times growth in payment volumes and over 3.5 times growth in transactions, consumers are beginning to enjoy the benefits of the debit card beyond its use as an ATM withdrawal instrument
  4. The year after demonetisation was driven by innovation, mainly new mobile applications allowing merchants to receive digital payments via UPI, Link Based, Bharat QR Scan & Pay to mPOS

GST helpful for digitization

  1. GST has given the much-needed boost to the digitization initiative
  2. It will now be difficult to make cash deals anymore with digital trails of every transaction

Way forward

  1. Both the government and the regulators need to continue the initiatives taken by them
  2. Principle-based policies, regulation versus current approach of product or entity based regulations, seamless access to payments network and other critical payments infrastructures like UPI and RTGS will make sure that incentives continue to grow for digital transactions
Oct, 27, 2017

Phase 1 of Bharat Net project to be completed by December

Image source


Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Bharat Net, NOFN, i-Bharat 2017

Mains level: Digital India initiative and its various support pillars


Bharat Net has now reached 83,000 gram panchayats

  1. The first phase of the national optic fiber network will be completed by December this year
  2. Named as Bharat Net project — it aims to deploy high-speed optical fiber cables across rural areas
  3. It will be providing internet access to 100,000 gram panchayats

‘i-Bharat 2017’

  1. It was a conference based on the theme of ‘ICT Elucidations for Unserved and Unsolved’
  2. It was organized by industry body FICCI in association with the ministry of electronics and information technology

Two important areas in the interplay of technology and policy

  1. There are two areas in the interplay of technology and policy where the world is closely looking at India
  2. One is how India will leverage its Aadhaar and Election Commission data base
  3. Second, how will the country tackle the privacy debate after the Supreme Court ruling on privacy being a fundamental right

The challenge

  1. With a large scale of people (about 250 million) expected to migrate from rural areas to urban cities by 2020, the challenge resides in readying urban cities to meet the rise in demand of various services
  2. The industry therefore needs to work towards creating affordable solutions in the space of health, education, etc, using the power of digital


National Optical Fibre Network (NOFN)- Bharat Net

  1. National Optical Fibre Network (NOFN) is an ambitious initiative to trigger a broadband revolution in rural areas
  2. The National Optical Fibre Network (NOFN) aims to connect all the 2,50,000 Gram panchayats in the country and provide 100 Mbps connectivity to all gram panchayats (GPs)
  3. To achieve this, the existing fibres of PSUs (BSNL, Railtel and Power Grid) were utilised and incremental fibre was laid to connect to Gram Panchayats wherever necessary
  4. Non-discriminatory access to the NOFN was provided to all the service providers like Telecom Service Providers (TSPs), ISPs, Cable TV operators and Content providers to launch various services in rural areas
  5. The NOFN project was funded by the Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF)
  6. BharatNet shall be a project of national importance to establish, by 2017, a highly scalable network infrastructure accessible on a non-discriminatory basis, to provide on-demand, affordable broadband connectivity of 2 Mbps to 20 Mbps for all households and on-demand capacity to all institutions, to realise the vision of Digital India, in partnership with States and the private sector
Oct, 07, 2017

[op-ed snap] The need for doing digital


Mains Paper 3: Science & Technology | Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level:Internet of things, blockchain tech, big data, etc.

Mains level: Importance of digital technology is well known. UPSC is known to ask questions on such kind of topics.



  1. The article effectively explains how digital leadership and digital transformation can be beneficial for companies and also in other fields like agriculture.

Why is Digital Technologies important for India?

  1. India is particularly poised to take advantage of digital technologies
  2. Because they have the potential to add economic value of $550 billion to $1 trillion per year by 2025, and create millions of well-paying, productive jobs

When is digital leadership important for companies?

  1. Digital leadership is effective for companies only when it creates value—for their customers, partners and employees

What was the issues in deploying digital technologies in companies?

  1. The business process improvement strategy was often overlooked as the technology teams typically jumped into operations deploying a set of digital tools
  2. This mindset is precisely what led to failed implementation and reduced business value in the past
  3. What is going wrong in solving this issue: Organisations, in their attempt to solve their problems, have rushed to adopt various isolated technology components before defining the problem they were trying to solve

How is today’s situation is different from the above issues?

  1. Today, the entire thought process has been changed
  2. Addressing design is now the first port of call in the new-age digital businesses that intelligently connect people, things and business, to create a good experience for their customers
  3. The result is simultaneous growth in revenue and reduction in costs
  4. Retail chains are experiencing the impact when they turned its online sales platform into a unique mobile experience
  5. And moved its infrastructure to the cloud, leveraging a digital platform that combined several digital tools, including the Internet of Things (IoT), machine learning, blockchain and big data analytics to create a better experience for its users

Benefits of digital technologies in other areas

  1. Production at an agriculture farm can be monitored digitally, thereby allowing informed, intelligent decisions that can prevent crop spoilage, increase efficiency with sustainability
  2. For large manufacturing companies, digital technology can empower the workforce to fix critical problems in real time

How digital leadership can accomplish above mentioned targets?

  1. By using IoT, machine learning, artificial intelligence (AI), blockchain and big data analytics
  2. All these technologies provide tremendous value

The way forward

  1. Technology is core to digital transformation
  2. Digital leaders realise that digital transformation needs to be viewed in a holistic manner
  3. In a manner that impacts end-to-end business processes, creating delight at every user interface, and delivering real business value


To know more about the IoT tech, Click here

Aug, 25, 2017

Worried SC calls for robust data protection regime

Image Source


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Not much

Mains level: Data protection has more important after the recent judgement of the SC on the Right to Privacy


What did the SC say?

  1. The SC has urged the government to put in place a robust mechanism for data protection
  2. According to the SC, dangers to personal data originate not only from the government but also from private players

Panel report and Government’s stand on the issue

  1. The Centre has undertaken in the court that the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology would work with the panel(constituted by Government)
  2. Government will hand over all necessary information to it within the next eight weeks, after which the latter will start its deliberations
  3. The government has already indicated in the court that the panel is framing a data protection Bill similar to the “technology-neutral” draft Privacy Bill
  4. This bill was  submitted by an earlier expert committee  to the Planning Commission of India in 2012
Nov, 16, 2016

Centre mulls changes to BPO scheme on tepid response

  1. The Centre is mulling changing some of the clauses in its scheme to promote BPOs in smaller towns across the country
  2. Reason: Following tepid interest received from companies until now
  3. The India BPO Promotion Scheme (IBPS), under Digital India Programme, was introduced to incentivise BPO firms to extend operations beyond the metros
  4. With an outlay of about Rs.500 crore, it aims to incentivise establishment of 48,300 seats, providing about 1,45,000 jobs considering 3-shift BPO operations
  5. Against this, the government has so far been able to allocate about 13,000 seats
  6. Reasons: Both companies and employees are reluctant to move to smaller towns
Oct, 10, 2016

In Raichur, an employment exchange for the digital age- II

  1. C-EOL enrols educated youth from the district at a fee of Rs. 100
  2. It keeps watch on vacancies and job-openings in public, quasi-government and private sectors
  3. It closely coordinates with the HR wing of employers & recruitment camps are arranged at its office
  4. The Centre updates candidates on job opportunities, based specifically on their profiles
  5. C-EOL also has a training and skill-development mechanism to make candidates more job ready

Discuss: Where all, do you think, you can use this case study? Digital India, employment initiatives… anything else?

Oct, 10, 2016

In Raichur, an employment exchange for the digital age- I

  1. In Karnataka’s dry and impoverished Raichur district, an administration-led initiative is linking youth with private sector jobs, throwing in skill development also into the mix
  2. The Centre for Employment, Opportunities and Learning (C-EOL) has been launched by Raichur Deputy Commissioner
  3. It is registered under The Societies Registration Act
  4. It has placed 153 youth in private companies over the last two months
Oct, 04, 2016

Govt to spend $7.2 bn on IT in 2016

  1. Source: A report by Gartner Inc
  2. Driven by the Digital India initiative, Govt’s spending on information technology (IT) products and services might reach $7.2 billion in 2016, up 2.4% against last year
  3. This is $200 million more than what was projected in June
  4. The e-governance initiatives to simplify digital channels and data-driven initiatives are driving investments in the government and are anticipated to grow through 2020
  5. Background: Govt’s IT spending has gradually increased from $6.4 billion in 2014, when the Narendra Modi-led government rolled out Digital India, to $6.8 billion to 2015, to reach $7.2 billion by 2016
Sep, 28, 2016

Local language internet users to jump to 400 million by 2020: Google

  1. The number of internet users in India will jump 85 per cent from 350 million in 2016 to 650 million by 2020
  2. As the same time, people accessing the Internet in local language will more than double from 150 million at present to about 400 million (61% of Indian users) by 2020
  3. It pointed out that it has seen 10x growth in local language queried over the past one-and-a-half-year
  4. Hindi content consumption on the internet is growing 5 times the rate at which English content is consumed

Discuss: India’s internet use growth rate is almost 5 times that of global average. How can India capitalise on this digital advantage and what are the challenges it faces?

Sep, 26, 2016

[op-ed snap] Why India must leverage digital finance tech

  1. Theme: Digital finance could provide a boost of up to USD 3.7 trillion to emerging economies by 2025
  2. Recently, a McKinsey Global Institute report, Digital Finance For All: Powering Inclusive Growth In Emerging Economies was released
  3. It is about the convergence of the two trends – financial inclusion and growing internet penetration
  4. These trends would result in improving private sector and govt. efficiency through ways such as decreasing leakages (as in direct benefit transfer), or decreasing cost of service for financial institutions
  5. Increasing financial inclusion would also result in increased funds for investment.
  6. Knock-on effects: First, digital payments leave a data trail and better tax administration.
  7. Second, crunching data will yield useful insights for policy making, e.g. spending patterns for poor etc.
  8. Third, new business models are enabled, e.g. e-commerce and peer-to-peer lending.
  9. India has a good infrastructure in place, e.g. the Jan Dhan Yojana and Unified Payments Interface
  10. But many challenges remain, particularly changing the behavioural patterns and preferences.
Sep, 23, 2016

Undersea cable to link Andaman, mainland

  1. What? Union Cabinet approved a proposal for improving telecom connectivity in Andaman & Nicobar Islands
  2. How? By connecting the union territory with Chennai via an undersea optical fibre cable at a cost of Rs.1,102.38 crore
  3. Advantages: The connectivity would allow the implementation of e-governance initiatives, establishment of enterprises and e-commerce facilities in the islands
  4. It would also allow for support to educational institutes for knowledge-sharing and availability of job opportunities
  5. The project is likely to be completed by December 2018
Sep, 07, 2016

Indian smartphone sales to double by 2020: Report

  1. Source: Euromonitor International
  2. However, the sale will be less than half the number sold in China
  3. The US smartphone market will shrink in the coming years, letting India overtake it in 2018
  4. India will become the world’s second largest smartphone market by value in 2019
  5. Most handsets sold in China and the US now are repeat purchases, unlike in India where sales are driven by buyers switching from feature phones to smartphones
  6. Most handset makers, including market leader Samsung, have launched cheap smartphones in India to tap this segment
Sep, 07, 2016

CSCs may assemble LED lamps to boost rural economy

  1. Aim: Tapping the 2.29 lakh Common Service Centers (CSCs) in the country to boost rural economy
  2. CSCs can be a great system for generating revenues and employment in rural India
  3. Through these centers, Govt will also provide tele-consultation services for animal healthcare as well as legal issues in rural areas
  4. Kits for testing of dieseses such as malaria and dengue will also be made available at these centers
Sep, 05, 2016

Mobile access scheme for remote areas soon

  1. News: Govt will soon unveil a new scheme to provide mobile phone access to over 55,000 villages, particularly those in border states and in the Himalayan region
  2. Aim: To push forward the flagship Digital India programme
  3. Funding: The scheme will be funded by the Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF)
  4. Grouping: Villages have been divided into Himalayan regions such as Jammu and Kashmir, Uttrakhand and Himachal Pradesh
  5. The second set will be those states which share borders with other nations
Aug, 24, 2016

Digital Locker Authority soon to push paperless governance

  1. News: Govt will appoint a Digital Locker Authority to establish, administer, and manage Digital Locker system
  2. Aim: To preserve and retain information for efficient delivery of services to the users
  3. Functions: Granting licenses and to authorise a private entity to offer these services
  4. Prepare standards and guidelines, while also ensuring compliance by service providers
  5. Guidelines include those for data retention and migration, audit and security and privacy
  6. Notify the fee or service charges a subscriber will have to pay for availing Digital Locker services from authorized service providers
  7. Currently, the services are offered for free
Aug, 22, 2016

Electronics manufacturing policy may soon get nod

  1. News: NITI Aayog has finalised ‘Make in India- Strategy for Electronic Products’- a long-term policy to boost manufacturing of electronic products by providing a host of incentives to attract investment
  2. 10-year tax holiday: For companies investing over $1 billion that can also create 20,000 jobs
  3. This would help bring some large foreign firms to India
  4. Duty-free market: We need to forge free trade agreements (FTAs) to create duty-free market for electronic goods
  5. Set up coastal economic zones (CEZ) which may be up to 200-250 kilometres wide from the coastline
  6. Globalise: Big success requires operating in a large world market- therefore India must reorient its policy to ensure the industry becomes competitive in export markets
  7. Stats: India’s domestic consumption of electronics hardware in 2014-15 was $63.6 billion while imports accounted for 58% of this figure
Aug, 20, 2016

India ranks 39th in Asia Pacific on fixed broadband

  1. News: India ranks a low 39th in terms of fixed broadband adoption among Asia Pacific countries, with just 1.3% of its citizens subscribing to such a service in 2015
  2. Report: ‘State of ICT in Asia and the Pacific 2016: Uncovering the Widening Broadband Divide’ by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
  3. India ranks lower than countries such as Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh in fixed broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants in ESCAP countries in 2015
Aug, 18, 2016

Indians online to hit 730 mn by 2020

  1. Context: The Future of Internet in India report compiled by Nasscom and Akamai Technologies
  2. Findings: The number of Internet users in India is likely to more than double to 730 million by 2020
  3. There were about 330 million Internet users in the country as of December 2015
  4. India, which has an Internet user base next only to China, will remain the fastest growing market
  5. Rural: 75% of the new users would come from rural areas
  6. Vernacs: Interestingly, a majority (75 per cent) of new users are expected to consume data in local languages
  7. E-commerce market: Valued at $17 billion in 2015-16, is expected to double to $34 billion by 2020
Jun, 17, 2016

Forecast of growth in different IT services

  1. IT service: Including consulting, software support, business process outsourcing, IT outsourcing, implementation, and hardware support is expected to grow 8.8% in 2016 to reach $1.6 billion
  2. BPO: Business process outsourcing sub-segment will grow by 22%
  3. Software: Govt spending will total $938 million in 2016, a 9.9% increase from 2015
  4. Telecom services will be at $1.5 billion, with the mobile network services sub-segment recording the fastest growth of 3.5 percent in 2016 to reach $793 million
  5. Driver: The ‘Digital India’ initiative is driving the investments in the government sector
Jun, 17, 2016

Govt. IT spending in India to reach $7 billion in 2016: report

  1. Context: A report by information technology research and advisory company Gartner
  2. Govt will spend $7 billion on IT products and services in 2016, an increase of 3.1% over 2015
  3. Included: Expected spending to be made by various state, local governments and the Centre
  4. Services: Internal services, software, IT services, data center, devices and telecom services
  5. Also, the software market will be led by growth in infrastructure
May, 30, 2016

PMO website launched in six regional languages

  1. Context: The official website of Prime Minister’s Office in six major regional languages
  2. Languages: Gujarati, Marathi, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu and Bengali
  3. Aim: To reach out the people and communicate with them
  4. Also to enhance the interaction between people from all parts of the country and the Prime Minister on various issues concerning their welfare and development
May, 30, 2016

Digital vans all set to take-governance to rural areas

  1. Context: A new campaign by Govt to increase the awareness about various e-governance services in rural and semi-urban areas
  2. Campaign under Telecom Ministry
  3. Period: It will run from May 30, 2016 to March 31 2017
  4. 66 vans equipped with Internet and audio-visual facilities will go to 657 districts and cover 13 lakh km by March 2017
  5. Aim: To reach out to more than 10 lakh citizens and register over 1.5 lakh rural citizens for MyGov, digital locker, Aadhaar and other digital services
  6. Also to educate rural people, especially the youth, about the various Digital India Initiatives
  7. Facility: Rural citizens will be informed about the services offered at CSC centres in 14 languages
Apr, 11, 2016

A digital wallet for all your e-spends

  1. News: National Payments Corporation of India has developed Unified Payments Interface, which makes the existing mobile based money transfer simpler
  2. Features: Money transfer is possible in both send mode and collect mode, as compared to present system of mobile payments which offers only send mode
  3. Impact: It would end the need to have different wallets for different e-commerce sites
  4. Statistics: There are about 35-36 wallets in the payments system, which the banking regulator has approved
  5. Future: These wallets will have to recreate themselves with some novel feature
Mar, 19, 2016

Cisco to lay 22,500-km long Internet fiber network in Andhra Pradesh

  1. Context: Digital India initiative aims to connect 250,000 gram panchayats with high speed Internet by 2017
  2. News: Cisco will design and implement a broadband project in Andhra Pradesh
  3. The project includes laying 22,500-km-long broadband network which will cover 2 million households
  4. Achievement: With the fiber optic rollout, AP becomes the first Indian state to bring all its households online
  5. Positive: The project cost came significantly down as govt. opted for aerial fiber network
Feb, 27, 2016

Optical fibre cable push misses target

  1. Target: connecting 150,000 village councils by the end of 2015
  2. Achievement: OFCs have been laid in about 32,000 gram panchayats across the country till November 2015
  3. Good progress: As compared to last year, the progress is quite good
  4. Momentum: While the project is still 80% behind schedule, there seems to be momentum building
Feb, 24, 2016

Students to take digital literacy to the masses

  1. News: Statewide Digital Empowerment Campaign is all set to be rolled out
  2. Context: Seeks to bridge the digital divide and maximise the potential of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) in day-to-day life
  3. Aim : Making people capable of using e-mail, accessing online government services, online utility payments and bank transfers
  4. Student police cadets: Students from 280 schools in 14 districts of Kerala enlisted for campaign, expected to help 3 million people in State
  5. Equipments: Tablets preloaded with special software to train, monitoring will be done by training process on real time basis using the software
  6. Nodal agency: Kerala State IT Mission (KSITM)
  7. Way ahead: President is expected to declare Kerala a ‘Digital State’ on the strength of its digital infrastructure and e-governance initiatives
Feb, 19, 2016

Fibre grid: Centre to replicate AP model

  1. Context: Improving Internet connectivity in the country as part of the Digital India programme
  2. Background: In order to develop fibre grid, the Andhra Pradesh govt connected cables to electric poles to reduce the project cost from Rs.5,000 crore to Rs. 320 crore
  3. News: Centre will replicate this model in other parts of country to improve internet connectivity
  4. Future: The govt had set a target to increase the number of internet users from 40 crore to 50 crore by 2017
Feb, 13, 2016

Digital India: 3 applications launched for Indian Railways

  1. Context: The Ministry of Railways has launched 3 IT (Information Technology) enabled apps to bring transparency in Indian Railways on the sidelines of Digital India initiative
  2. Hand Held Terminals: Pilot project of Northern Railway that will help in updating status of passenger list of the whole train
  3. Based on the list food-chart/occupancy chart will be manually prepared
  4. Paperless Ticketing: It can be used for booking unreserved tickets on many suburban and some long distance routes on mobile application
  5. E-booking: Allows passengers to avail bedroll kits through online booking and from IRCTC setup select outlets on the station
Feb, 10, 2016

Cable can link 50 crore to Web: TRAI chief

  1. Background: BharatNet aims to provide broadband connectivity to 2.5 lakh village panchayats at a cost of Rs. 1,09,000 crore
  2. Challenge: The lack of adequate connectivity could undermine the potential advantages of transformational programmes such as Aadhaar
  3. Suggestion: TRAI Chairman suggested to use cable TV networks to connect the people
  4. How?: We have 100 mn homes with cable TV and these pipes can deliver up to 10 Mbps speed with assured connectivity
  5. Impact: It has potential to connect 50 crore people to the Internet and reduce the load on wireless spectrum
Jan, 25, 2016

Digital payments set to take off this year: TRAI chief

Telecom operators have 18 months to commence operations and many are expected to start this year.

  1. A low-cost model would attract even those at the bottom of the pyramid to digital payments and banking.
  2. This is now possible with the RBI recently issuing payment banks licenses to 11 companies.
  3. The problem in the digital world is that of establishing an identity which can be solved by using Aadhaar as it can help do a secure transaction at a very low cost.
  4. To promote cashless payments, which includes a mandate to switch all central government receipts and payments to paperless form by the end of 2016.
Jan, 20, 2016

All 5,631 gram panchayats in State to get high-speed internet access

  1. All 5,631 gram panchayats in the Karnataka are expected to be connected with high-speed optical fibre cables by March this year.
  2. The project was taken up by BSNL and it offers a bandwidth speed of 50 Mbps.
  3. It is sufficient to access govt services at the gram panchayats, without going to the town or district headquarters for availing such services.
  4. Project is taken up under the Digital India mission and is nearing completion.
Dec, 22, 2015

PMO sets ambitious paperless target

  1. The PMO has set an ambitious target to shift at least 90% of all govt. payments and receipts, to online mode by the end of 2016.
  2. Transactions involving payments or receipts from citizens and businesses will be shifted to electronic or paperless mode
  3. It will replace the use of cash, demand drafts, cheques and challans in government offices.
  4. The govt. has asked departments to consider ‘innovativeincentives to encourage users to make payments electronically.
Dec, 15, 2015

Ministry of HRD launches ‘e-pathshala'

  1. The Ministry of HRD has launched ‘e-pathshala’ as a part of the Digital India Campaign.
  2. It is a single point repository of e-resources containing, NCERT text-books and various other learning resources.
  3. It will also reduce the cost of books as there will be cost of only internet to download the book.
Nov, 30, 2015

Regional languages are the lynchpin to India’s Internet boom

Rural web access will grow on availability of content in regional languages.

  1. By 2018, approximately half the users will reside in smaller towns and villages and will access the Internet through local languages.
  2. The Indian languages account for less than 0.1% content on the worldwide Web.
  3. This could change rapidly as companies are investing heavily in building up the Indian language Internet.
  4. Last year, Google India initiated an Indian Language Internet Alliance, a group of companies who will help push regional language content online.
Nov, 18, 2015

India’s Internet user base to touch 402 mn by December, surpassing U.S.

  1. A report released by Internet and Mobile Association of India and IMRB International shows that no. of Internet users in India is expected to touch 402 million by December.
  2. It will be a 49% jump over last year, making India home to the 2nd largest online user base after China.
  3. Currently, India has the 3rd largest Internet user base in the world after China and the U.S.
  4. The report points that 71% male and 29% female are Internet users in India.
  5. Internet users in rural India are expected to reach 117 million by December.
Nov, 09, 2015

Asia’s foremost Information Security Conference: Ground Zero Summit, 2015

Summit is organized to deliberate upon issues related to cyber security challenges emerging due to the latest technological developments.

  1. Theme for the Summit is Digital India – ‘Securing Digital India’.
  2. Summit is organized by the Indian Infosec Consortium (ICC).
  3. ICC wants to consolidate the cyber security resources in country and protect its cyberspace.
  4. Summit is collaborative platform in Asia for cyber security experts to address emerging cyber security challenges and demonstrate cutting-edge technologies.
  5. Summit will showcase indigenous cyber security products and technologies and Make in India Exhibition of Indian cyber security start-ups.
Oct, 30, 2015

All govt. financial transactions to be made digital

The Centre is planning an e-route for all govt. transactions, including receipts and payments, as part of Digital India programme.

  1. The department will create a common application that can be used by all ministries.
  2. Citizens can transact with all the departments digitally using e-payment gateways and banks.
  3. To make it an inclusive programme and accessible to all, govt. is planning to bring 100 government websites in 3 languages.
  4. The govt. is also working with mobile phone manufacturers to support at least 3 vernacular languages in feature phones.
Oct, 23, 2015

Digital India sectors attracting flow of foreign funds in big way

Recent reports have said that India has outstripped China in terms of FDI, this is a limited view.

  1. In fact, China’s gross FDI inflows are far higher than India’s.
  2. While FDI inflows into ‘Make in India’ industries have increased, the export focus of the campaign seems to have been diluted in favour of the Digital India sectors.
  3. FDI inflows into the automobile sector, have been growing and focussing more on domestic demand rather than on export growth.
  4. The profile of recent FDI flows is indicative of investments done to tap the domestic household consumption rather than catalyse exports.
Sep, 28, 2015

Microsoft plans to take technology to 5 lakh villages

Intending to become a partner in the ambitious Digital India programme

  1. Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella, said his company will take low-cost broadband technology to some five lakh villages across the country.
  2. Microsoft’s plan is to partner with the Indian Government to bring in low-cost broadband connectivity to 500,000 villages in India.
  3. Low-cost broadband connectivity coupled with the scale of cloud computing intelligence that can be harnessed from data can help drive creativity, efficiency and productivity in India.
Sep, 02, 2015

[Discuss] Fallout of digital inclusion

Is digital inclusion dividing rather than connecting people? Are efforts such as the National Digital Literacy Mission (NDLM) and Common Services Centre (CSC) schemes making people’s lives more convenient or just miserable?

  1. In our villages, there are only a few interfaces where people experience the interventions of digital tools, and most of them end up making their lives not only miserable but also snatch away their basic rights, such as freedom, access and entitlements. How?
  2. The NDLM makes it mandatory to have an Aadhaar number. If you don’t have one, you cannot become a training partner or a trainee.
  3. The demand for an Aadhaar number not only excludes many truly deserving candidates from receiving digital literacy but also violates fundamental rights and breaches the Supreme Court interim order of 2013.
  4. Besides an Aadhaar number, the mission requires the training partner to make an additional investment in a biometric machine.
  5. That is why, large difference in the number of people enrolled for digital literacy and those who have got certificates.

Fear is that, digital inclusion efforts will end up sending the bulk of the population into a state of exclusion that will result in a divided society on a scale that the country has never seen before.

Can you suggest some solutions to make Digital India successful?

Aug, 07, 2015

Boosting digital footprint in rural areas

  1. IIT Bombay has set up India’s first pilot test-bed which uses unused TV spectrum to provide broadband Internet connectivity.
  2. The project tries to create an alternative to optic fiber cables, which is a very difficult as well as an expensive option to connect villages.
  3. This technology is capable of providing coverage within the radius of 1-10 km from the access network much like WiFi zones and access points.
  4. The Department of Telecom has also granted an experimental licence to IIT-B to conduct tests in TV’s UHF band.


What are these different band types? Do you know any interesting trivia information on them?

Jul, 22, 2015

Govt. extends scheme to boost the electronics industry

  1. Govt. extended Modified Special Incentive Package Scheme (M-SIPS) by 5 years and added 15 new product categories.
  2. Electronics sector has potential to attract $100 Billion investments and provide jobs to 28 million people. MSIPS is supposed to bolster the ‘Make in India’ and ‘Digital India’ initiatives.
  3. Some of the new product categories are smart cards, consumer appliances (like washing machines, air conditioners), optical fibres and Internet of Things (IoT) products etc.
  4. The scheme was originally approved in July 2012 for 3 years to provide capital subsidy of 20 per cent in SEZ or 25 per cent in non-SEZ units engaged in manufacturing of electronics items.




Jul, 03, 2015

Digital India: 10 key initiatives that you should know

One way to get a feel of what’s going on is this – We are broadly trying to automate most of the mundane processes online.

Crudely speaking – on one hand, Govt. wants to use tech as a tool to facilitate some of the services (which are already in play) – eg: E-signatures, Digital Locker, Scholarship info at one place and so on.

On the other, Govt. has to lay down some basic infrastructure to extend its digital capacities so that we maximise on our long term vision – Internet of Things, Swachh Bharat Abhiyan etc.


  1. Digital locker System – To minimize usage of physical documents and enable their e-sharing via registered repositories.
  2. – The “Discuss, Do and Disseminate” approach – engage citizens in decision making.
  3. Swachh Bharat Mission Mobile app to achieve the goals. We wonder how that will pan out?
  4. An e-Sign framework to allow citizens to digitally sign documents online using Aadhaar.
  5. National Scholarship Portal for beneficiaries from submission of application to verification, sanction and disbursal.
  6. Bharat Net Program  A high-speed digital highway to connect all 250,000 gram panchayats of country. This would be the world’s largest rural broadband project using optical fibre.
  7. BSNL’s Next Generation Network to replace 30-year old telephone exchanges to manage all types of services like voice, data, multimedia and other types of communication services.
  8. Centre of Excellence on Internet of Things (IoT) – A joint initiative of the government agencies and private institutions such as Nasscom.
  9. Broadband Highways as one of the pillars of Digital India to address the connectivity issue while enabling and providing technologies to facilitate delivery of services to citizens.
  10. Outsourcing Policy to create such centres in different northeastern states and in smaller towns across the country.
Jul, 03, 2015

Govt plans Internet green channel: Javadekar

We are thinking of launching an Internet green channel. We are also looking at starting one-hour-long programme based on green practices on DD Kisan channel.