Social Media: Prospect and Challenges

AI Content Detectors to Combat Deepfakes


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Emerging Technologies; Deepfake Technology;

Why in the News?

During the General Elections 2024, the proliferation of AI-generated content (AIGC), including deepfake videos featuring prominent figures like Aamir Khan and Ranveer Singh, raised concerns about misinformation.

What is Deepfake Technology?

  • It is a type of Artificial Intelligence used to create convincing images, audio and video hoaxes. Deepfakes often transform existing source content where one person is swapped for another.
  • Creating such content involves a technique known as Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), comprising Artificial Neural Networks.

Legal Safeguards in India:

  • The regulations under the IT Act of 2000 and 2021 requires social media intermediaries to promptly remove deepfake content. Failure to do so may result in imprisonment or fines.
    • Section 66D: It penalizes individuals for cheating through personation using communication devices or computer resources. (Imprisonment for up to 3 yrs and a fine of up to 1 lakh rupees)
    • Rule 3(1)(b)(vii): This rule mandates that social media intermediaries prevent the hosting of content impersonating others.
    • Rule 3(2)(b): This rule requires social media platforms to remove such content within 24 hours of receiving a complaint.

Significance of Deepfake Technology:

  • Promotes Right to Expression: Deepfakes amplify voices of marginalised individuals, enabling them to share important messages. Recently, a video was created to deliver the final message of a journalist killed by the Saudi government, calling for justice.
  • Can contribute to the Education System: Online educators use deepfakes to bring historical figures to life for engaging lessons. For example, a video of Abraham Lincoln delivering his Gettysburg.
  • Provides Autonomy: Deepfakes empower individuals to control their digital identity and explore new forms of self-expression. For instance, the Reface App.
  • Provides a realistic experience: Artists leverage deepfakes for creative expression and collaboration, as seen in Salvador Dali’s interactive museum promotion. Deepfake tech enables realistic lip-syncing for actors speaking different languages, enhancing global accessibility and immersion in films.
  • Renovating old memories: Deepfakes aid in restoring old photos, enhancing low-quality footage, and creating realistic training materials for public safety.

What are the limitations of Deepfake Technology?

  • Spreading False Information: Deepfakes can purposefully spread misinformation, influencing public opinion or elections, like the videos of politicians/celebrities can manipulate viewers and create confusion about important issues.
  • Frauds: Deepfake technology enables impersonation for financial frauds, tricking individuals into revealing sensitive information. They can also fuel harassment, especially targeting women, and lead to psychological distress.
  • Accuracy: While no AI detector guarantees 100% accuracy, tools like boast a 99% true positive rate. Detection models report probability scores, allowing for nuanced assessments despite inherent uncertainties.

Future Scope:

  • Adversarial AI: Keeping pace with evolving generative AI models poses a significant challenge for content detectors.
  • Accessibility and Cost: With increased adoption and advancements, the accessibility and affordability of detection tools are expected to improve.


With the present state of development, Artificial Intelligence can effectively do which of the following? (2020)

1.       Bring down electricity consumption in industrial units

2.       Create meaningful short stories and songs

3.       Disease diagnosis

4.       Text-to-Speech Conversion

5.       Wireless transmission of electrical energy

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1, 2, 3 and 5 only

(b) 1, 3 and 4 only

(c) 2, 4 and 5 only

(d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

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