G20 : Economic Cooperation ahead

Analysing where India stands in the G20


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: G20

Mains level: India in the G20: Analysis

What’s the news?

  • The 18th G20 Summit, hosted by India in New Delhi from September 9 to 10, revolved around the theme One Earth, One Family, One Future. This global forum convened to deliberate on crucial issues encompassing food security, climate change, energy, development, healthcare, and digitalization.

Central idea

  • The G20 Summit marked a successful conclusion as India transferred the G20 Presidency to Brazil. India’s performance across various socioeconomic metrics within the G20 context reveals a mixed picture of progress and challenges.

GDP per capita comparison (1970–2022)

  • 1970: India’s GDP per capita was $111.97, ranking 18th out of 19 regions analyzed. India had one of the lowest GDP per capita figures among the group.
  • 2022: By 2022, India’s GDP per capita had risen significantly to $2,388.62. However, despite this growth, India had moved to the last position among the 19 regions, indicating that other regions had experienced more substantial economic growth during this period.

Human Development Index (HDI) comparison (1990–2021)

  • 1990: In 1990, India’s HDI stood at 0.43, indicating a relatively low level of human development. At that time, India ranked towards the lower end of the list among the 19 countries and regions analyzed.
  • 2021: By 2021, India’s HDI had improved to 0.63, signifying significant progress in terms of human development over the decades. However, despite this improvement, India still ranked at the bottom of the list among the 19 regions, highlighting the need for further advancements in various aspects of human development, including life expectancy, education, and living standards.

Health Metrics Comparison

  • Life Expectancy (1990-2021):
    • In 1990, India had an average life expectancy of 45.22 years.
    • China, at the same time, had a lower average life expectancy of 33.27 years.
    • By 2021, India’s life expectancy had increased to 67.24 years.
    • Despite this improvement, India’s ranking remained the same, and China surpassed India in terms of life expectancy.
  • Infant Mortality Rate (1990-2021):
    • In 1990, India had an infant mortality rate of 88.8 per 1,000 live births, ranking it at the bottom of the 20 regions analyzed.
    • By 2021, India’s infant mortality rate had improved to 25.5 per 1,000 live births.
    • India’s ranking improved to 19th place, just ahead of South Africa (26.4), but it still lags behind many other regions in terms of infant mortality.

Labor Force Participation Rate (LFPR) Comparison (1990-2021-22)

  • 1990:
    • In 1990, India’s LFPR for individuals above 15 years of age was 54.2%.
    • This LFPR ranking placed India at the 18th position among the 20 regions analyzed.
    • India was ahead of Italy (49.7%) and Saudi Arabia (53.3%) in LFPR.
  • 2021-22:
    • By 2021-22, India’s LFPR had decreased to 49.5%.
    • This decline resulted in a slip in India’s ranking to 19th place.
    • India was now only ahead of Italy (49.4%) among the 20 regions in terms of LFPR.

Women’s Representation in Parliament (1998-2022)

  • 1998:
    • In 1998, women constituted 8.1% of the Indian Parliament.
    • At that time, India ranked 15th out of the 19 regions analyzed in terms of women’s representation in Parliament.
    • While there were women in leadership positions, India’s representation was relatively low compared to some other regions.
  • 2022:
    • By 2022, women’s representation in the Indian Parliament had nearly doubled to 14.9%.
    • However, despite this increase, India’s ranking had slipped to the 18th position among the 19 regions.
    • India was just ahead of Japan (9.9%) in terms of women’s representation in Parliament.

Environmental Progress

  • Carbon Emissions (1990 and 2020):
    • In 1990, India was the lowest emitter of CO2 among the 20 regions analyzed.
    • This demonstrated India’s relatively low carbon emissions at that time.
    • In 2020, India maintained its status as the lowest emitter of CO2 among the same regions, indicating a consistent trend of relatively low carbon emissions.
  • Renewable Energy Adoption (1990 and 2015):
    • In 1990, most G20 nations, excluding the U.S. and Mexico, generated less than 2% of their electricity from renewables.
    • By 2015, India had made some progress, with 5.36% of its electricity coming from renewable sources.
    • However, India’s ranking in this regard was 13th out of the 20 regions analyzed, suggesting relatively slow progress in adopting eco-friendly energy sources compared to some other G20 nations.


  • As India hands over the G20 Presidency to Brazil, there is an opportunity for the nation to build on its successes and address areas that require further attention to achieve a more balanced and equitable socioeconomic landscape

Get an IAS/IPS ranker as your 1: 1 personal mentor for UPSC 2024

Attend Now

Notify of
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments


Join us across Social Media platforms.

💥Mentorship New Batch Launch
💥Mentorship New Batch Launch