Historical and Archaeological Findings in News

Ancient Chalukyan Temples and Inscription Found


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Mudimanikyam Temples

Mains level: Chalukyan Empire



  • Recent archaeological findings in Mudimanikyam village, Nalgonda district, unveiled two Badami Chalukya temples dating back 1,300-1,500 years and a label inscription from the 8th or 9th century AD.
  • These discoveries shed light on the rich historical heritage of the region.

Ancient Mudimanikyam Temples

  • Dating: The two temples, constructed between 543 AD and 750 AD, exhibit the distinctive Kadamba Nagara style in the Rekha Nagara format, a rarity in Telangana.
  • Architectural Significance: Research emphasizes the importance of these temples as testimonies to the Badami Chalukya period. With minimal restoration, they can serve as valuable relics of ancient architecture in Telangana.
  • Comparison: Apart from the Badami Chalukya temples at Alampur, these temples stand out as exceptional examples of architectural prowess from that era.

Details of Label Inscription

  • Discovery: The label inscription, found on a pillar of a group of five temples in the village, dates back to the 8th or 9th century AD.
  • Meaning: While the exact meaning of the inscription, ‘Gandaloranru,’ remains unclear, ASI suggests it may denote a heroic title, with ‘Ganda’ in Kannada meaning ‘hero.’
  • Historical Context: The presence of the inscription indicates the existence of five temples, known as Panchakuta, during the late Badami Chalukya period. However, these temples are no longer in use, with one missing the Shivalinga and another containing a Vishnu idol.

Badami Chalukyas: Legacy and Achievements

  • Establishment: Pulakeshin I founded the Chalukya dynasty in 550, establishing Badami (Vatapi) in present-day Karnataka as the capital.
  • Extent of Empire: The Badami Chalukyas ruled over territories encompassing modern Karnataka and large parts of Andhra Pradesh.
  • Pulakesi II’s Reign:
    1. Notable Conquests: Pulakeshin II expanded the empire northwards, halting Harsha’s advance and defeating the Vishnukundins in the southeastern Deccan.
    2. Diplomatic Relations: His reign saw diplomatic exchanges with Chinese and Persian empires, highlighting the dynasty’s international stature.
  • Vikramaditya Dynasty: The dynasty experienced resurgence under Vikramaditya I, who expelled the Pallavas from Badami, and reached its zenith under Vikramaditya II, who conquered Kanchipuram from the Pallavas.
  • Decline and End: The Rashtrakuta Dantidurga dethroned the last Badami Chalukya king, Kirtivarman I, in 753, ending the dynasty’s rule.

Cultural Feats

  • Art and Architecture: The era witnessed the emergence of Vesara architecture, blending South Indian and North Indian styles, epitomized by monuments like the rock-cut temples of Pattadakal, Badami, and Aihole.
  • Coinage: Unique Coinage: Chalukya coins bore legends in Nagari and Kannada scripts, featuring symbols like temples, lions, and lotuses.
  • Religious Patronage: Initially adherents of Vedic Hinduism, the Chalukyas later embraced Shaivism, fostering sects like Pashupata, Kapalikas, and Kalamukhas, while also promoting Jainism.

Government and Administration:

  • Military Prowess: The Chalukya army, comprising infantry, cavalry, and a formidable navy, employed innovative strategies, including intoxicating elephants before battle.
  • Administrative Structure: The empire was divided into provinces, districts, and smaller administrative units, with feudal lords governing autonomous regions.

Try this PYQ from CSP 2019:

Q. Building ‘Kalyaana Mandapas’ was a notable feature in the temple construction I the kingdom of:

a) Chalukya

b) Chandela

c) Rashtrakuta

d) Vijayanagara

Post your answers here.
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