From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : CDRI-Coalition For Disaster Resilient Infrastructure.
Mains level : Bilateral, regional and global groupings involving India and/or affecting India's interests.
Some of the most pressing issues and developmental challenges facing nations in contemporary times have a scientific and technological dimension. Science and Technology (S&T)-led innovation offers an opportunity to address these multifaceted challenges, which are now global in nature.
Role of S&T in national and international obligations:
- S&T today has a national obligation.
- For a diverse country such as India, S&T is expected to empower the common citizen, making his/her life easier and also being inclusive, which is a national obligation.
- It has to also meet the international obligation of a responsible country.
- Importance of S&T innovation in achieving the 2030 Agenda for UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)- points towards new opportunities for cross border collaboration.
- Science diplomacy, thus, is a crucial policy dimension.
- India has launched several global initiatives.
Global Innovation and Technology Alliance (GITA):
- It was launched by India a few years ago.
- GITA has provided an enabling platform for frontline techno-economic alliances.
- It is an industry-led collaboration, with the government as an equal partner.
- It is aimed at supporting the last phase of technology-based high-end, affordable product development — which can connect to both global and domestic markets.
- Under GITA, enterprises from India are tying up with their counterparts from partner countries.
- Partnering countries include Canada, Finland, Italy, Sweden, Spain, and the UK.
International Solar Alliance (ISA):
- It has more than 79 sunshine countries as signatories and nearly 121 prospective countries as partners.
- The vision and mission of the ISA are to provide a dedicated platform for cooperation among solar resource-rich countries.
- ISA can make a contribution to increasing the use of solar energy in meeting the energy needs of member countries in a safe, affordable, equitable and sustainable manner.
Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI):
- It was recently announced at the UN Climate Action Summit in New York.
- CDRI is an international partnership piloted by India in consultation with 35 countries.
- CDRI will support developed and developing nations in their efforts to build climate and disaster-resilient infrastructure.
- It will provide member countries with technical support and capacity development, research and knowledge management, and advocacy and partnerships.
- It is aimed at risk identification and assessment, urban risk and planning, and disaster risk management.
- In the next two-three years, the coalition aims to have three types of impact.
- First-impact on country’s policy framework, second-on infrastructure investments, third-reduction in economic losses from climate-related events and natural disasters.
- Through this coalition, we can mitigate the fallouts of earthquakes, tsunami, floods.
- No nation alone has the capacity, infrastructure, and human resources to address the massive challenges that the earth and mankind face, threatening our very existence. It is inevitable, therefore, that science, technology, and innovation should increasingly become an intrinsic diplomatic tool for India.