Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Bonn Climate Conference: Key Takeaways


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Global Stocktake (GST)

Mains level: Read the attached story

bonn climate

Central Idea

  • The Bonn Climate Change Conference was held from 5 to 15 June 2023.
  • Building on the mandates that emerged from COP 27 in Egypt last year, the conference hosted a large number of mandated events and continue discussions on issues of critical importance.
  • It is expected to make progress on these and other important issues and prepare draft decisions for adoption at COP 28 / CMP 18 / CMA 5 in the UAE in December 2023.

Key ideas discussed

  • Some progress was made on the global stocktake (GST) discussions.
  • However, the issues of historical responsibility and finance remained contentious, hindering the strengthening of climate actions.


What is Global Stocktake (GST)?

  • GST is a process established under the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change.
  • It serves as a mechanism to assess global progress in addressing climate change and to enhance collective climate action.
  • The GST aims to review the implementation of the Paris Agreement’s goals and targets and identify areas where additional efforts are needed to meet those objectives.

Key aspects of the Global Stocktake include:

  1. Timing: The Paris Agreement mandates that the GST be conducted every five years, starting in 2023. This regular assessment allows for tracking progress and adjusting strategies accordingly.
  2. Assessment of Collective Efforts: GST evaluates the collective efforts of all countries in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, adapting to the impacts of climate change, and providing support to developing nations.
  3. Review of Goals and Targets: It assesses the effectiveness of countries’ actions in meeting the long-term temperature goals outlined in the Paris Agreement, primarily the goal to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
  4. Transparency and Accountability: The GST promotes transparency and accountability by encouraging countries to report on their progress and actions taken toward achieving their climate goals. This allows for a comprehensive and objective assessment of global climate action.
  5. Identification of Gaps and Opportunities: The stocktake identifies gaps in collective efforts, including finance, technology transfer, and capacity-building support, and explores opportunities for enhanced actions to bridge those gaps.
  6. Decision-Making: The findings and recommendations from the GST inform future decision-making, including the setting of new targets and the adjustment of national climate plans, known as Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).

Challenges in Climate Negotiations

  • Disputes and Delayed Agendas: Developed and developing countries engaged in disagreements, leading to delays in agreeing on meeting agendas.
  • Historical Responsibility Debate: Australia’s attempt to diminish the historical responsibility of developed nations in causing global warming sparked controversy.
  • Developing Countries’ Perspective: Developing nations emphasized the importance of acknowledging historical responsibility in addressing climate change.
  • Potential Conflict at COP28: The issue of historical responsibility is expected to resurface at COP28, posing challenges to reaching consensus.

Finance and Technology Transfer

  • Disparity in Support: Developing countries expressed concerns about inadequate financial and technological support from developed nations.
  • Burden of Implementation: Insufficient funds hinder the ability of developing countries to implement robust climate action plans.

Future Outlook

(1) Bridging Adequacy Gap:

  • Developed Nations’ Perspective: Australia and the United States questioned the sole responsibility of developed countries in bridging the adequacy gap.
  • Developing Nations’ Concerns: Developing countries emphasized the need for financial support and technology transfers to enhance their climate actions.
  • Value Addition: Bridging the adequacy gap requires global cooperation, equitable burden-sharing, and increased financial assistance for developing countries.

(2) Financing Climate Action:

  • Insufficient Funds: Current financial commitments fall short of the required resources for implementing climate action plans.
  • Summit for a New Global Financial Pact: A Paris summit aims to redirect global financial flows and raise new funds for climate change initiatives.

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