Mother and Child Health – Immunization Program, BPBB, PMJSY, PMMSY, etc.

Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes among Children


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Diabates among children

Mains level : Not Much


The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) has written to Education Boards of all States/UTs, stating schools must ensure proper care/facilities for children with Type 1 diabetes (T1D).

What is Diabetes?

  • Diabetes is a chronic medical condition that occurs when the body cannot regulate blood sugar levels properly.
  • Blood sugar, also known as blood glucose, is the main source of energy for the body’s cells.
  • Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, helps the body use and store glucose from food.
  • In diabetes, the body either does not produce enough insulin or cannot use the insulin it produces effectively, resulting in high blood sugar levels.
  • Over time, high blood sugar levels can cause serious health problems, such as damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves.

Types of Diabetes

There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2.

  • Type 1 diabetes: It is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, resulting in a lack of insulin. This type of diabetes is typically diagnosed in children and young adults, although it can occur at any age. It requires insulin injections or pump therapy for survival.
  • Type 2 diabetes: It is a metabolic disorder in which the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin or doesn’t produce enough insulin to maintain normal glucose levels. This type of diabetes is often associated with lifestyle factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, and poor diet. It is typically diagnosed in adults, but it is becoming increasingly common in children and adolescents as well. Treatment for Type 2 diabetes may include lifestyle changes, oral medications, or insulin therapy.

Menace of diabetes in India

  • According to data from the International Diabetes Federation Atlas 2021, India has the world’s highest number of children and adolescents living with Type I Diabetes Mellitus (TIDM).
  • There are over 2.4 lakh TID patients in the Southeast Asia region.

Measures to mitigate TID impact on students

  • CBSE circular in 2017 allowed students with T1D in Classes X and XII to carry certain eatables to board exam hall to avoid low sugar episodes.
  • They are permitted to carry medicines, snacks, water, a glucometer, and testing strips.
  • NCPCR suggests states allow students to use smartphones to monitor sugar levels.
  • Tamil Nadu has been providing free insulin to children with T1D since 1988.

Back2Basics: National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR)

  • NCPCR is a statutory body established in India under the Commissions for Protection of Child Rights Act, 2005.
  • Its objective is to protect, promote and defend the rights of children in India.
  • It functions as a watchdog to prevent child rights violations, as well as to take action against those responsible for such violations.
  • The NCPCR also advocates for the implementation of laws, policies and programs aimed at promoting child welfare and development.


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