Agricultural Sector and Marketing Reforms – eNAM, Model APMC Act, Eco Survey Reco, etc.

Global Agricultural Productivity Report, 2021


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Global Agricultural Productivity Report, 2021

Mains level : Agricultural Productivity

Global agricultural productivity (GAP) is not growing as fast as the demand for food, amid the impact of climate change, according to a new report.

GAP Report

  • The GAP Report is released by Virginia Tech’s College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.
  • It urges the acceleration of productivity growth from smallholders to large-scale farmers to meet consumers’ needs and address current and future threats to human and environmental well-being.

Key indicator: Total factor productivity (TFP)

  • In agriculture, productivity is measured as Total Factor Productivity or TFP.
  • An increase in TFP growth indicates that more crops, livestock, and aquaculture products were produced with the same amount (or less) land, labor, fertilizer, machinery, feed, and livestock.
  • TFP grows when producers increase output using improved technologies and practices, such as advanced seed varieties, precision mechanization, efficient nutrient and water management techniques, and improved animal care practices.
  • Using agricultural inputs efficiently to generate more output reduces agriculture’s environmental impact and lowers costs for producers and consumers.

Highlights of the report

  • Total factor productivity (TFP) is growing at an annual rate of 1.36 per cent (2020-2019).
  • This is below the annual target of 1.73 per cent growth to sustainably meet the needs of consumers for food and bioenergy in 2050.
  • Climate change has already reduced productivity growth globally by 21 per cent since 1961, the report said.
  • In the drier regions of Africa and Latin America, climate change has slowed productivity growth by as much as 34 per cent.
  • The report noted that middle-income countries including India, China, Brazil and erstwhile Soviet republics continued to have strong TFP growth rates.

Agricultural productivity in India

  • India has seen strong TFP and output growth this century.
  • The most recent data shows an average annual TFP growth rate of 2.81 per cent and output growth of 3.17 per cent (2010–2019).

Key recommendations

  • The report urged accelerating investments in agricultural R&D to increase and preserve productivity gains, especially for small farmers.
  • It identified six strategies and policies that would create sustainable agricultural growth at all scales of production:
  1. Invest in agricultural research and development
  2. Embrace science-and-information-based technologies
  3. Improve infrastructure for transportation, information and finance
  4. Cultivate partnerships for sustainable agriculture, economic growth and improved nutrition
  5. Expand and improve local, regional and global trade
  6. Reduce post-harvest loss and food waste


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