Health Sector – UHC, National Health Policy, Family Planning, Health Insurance, etc.

Highlights of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 5 Part: II

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : NFHS and other survey mentioned

Mains level : Read the attached story

The Total Fertility Rate (TFR), the average number of children per woman, has further declined from 2.2 to 2.0 at the national level between National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 4 and 5.

What is NFHS?

  • The NFHS is a large-scale, multi-round survey conducted in a representative sample of households throughout India.
  • The IIPS is the nodal agency, responsible for providing coordination and technical guidance for the NFHS.
  • NFHS was funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) with supplementary support from United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).
  • The First National Family Health Survey (NFHS-1) was conducted in 1992-93.

Objectives of the NFHS

The survey provides state and national information for India on:

  • Fertility
  • Infant and child mortality
  • The practice of family planning
  • Maternal and child health
  • Reproductive health
  • Nutrition
  • Anaemia
  • Utilization and quality of health and family planning services

Modifications in NFHS 5

NFHS-5 includes new focal areas that will give requisite input for strengthening existing programmes and evolving new strategies for policy intervention. The areas are:

  • Expanded domains of child immunization
  • Components of micro-nutrients to children
  • Menstrual hygiene
  • Frequency of alcohol and tobacco use
  • Additional components of non-communicable diseases (NCDs)
  • Expanded age ranges for measuring hypertension and diabetes among all aged 15 years and above.

Highlights of the NFHS 5 Part-II

(a) Fertility Rate

  • There are only five States — Bihar (2.98), Meghalaya (2.91), Uttar Pradesh (2.35), Jharkhand (2.26) Manipur (2.17) —which are above replacement level of fertility of 2.1.

(b) Institutional Births

  • The institutional births increased from 79% to 89% across India and in rural areas around 87% births being delivered in institutions and the same is 94% in urban areas.
  • As per results of the NFHS-5, more than three-fourths (77%) children aged between 12 and 23 months were fully immunised, compared with 62% in NFHS-4.
  • The level of stunting among children under five years has marginally declined from 38% to 36% in the country since the last four years.
  • Stunting is higher among children in rural areas (37%) than urban areas (30%) in 2019-21.

(c) Decision making

  • The extent to which married women usually participate in three household decisions (about health care for herself; making major household purchases; visit to her family or relatives) indicates that their participation in decision-making is high, ranging from 80% in Ladakh to 99% in Nagaland and Mizoram.
  • Rural (77%) and urban (81%) differences are found to be marginal.
  • The prevalence of women having a bank or savings account has increased from 53% to 79% in the last four years.

(d) Rise in obesity

  • Compared with NFHS-4, the prevalence of overweight or obesity has increased in most States/UTs in NFHS-5.
  • At the national level, it increased from 21% to 24% among women and 19% to 23% among men.
  • More than a third of women in Kerala, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, AP, Goa, Sikkim, Manipur, Delhi, Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Punjab, Chandigarh and Lakshadweep (34-46 %) are overweight or obese.

 

Also read

National Family Health Survey- 5 Part: I

 

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