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Lancet report on premature deaths in India

Mains Paper 2 : Health & Education |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : DALY,

Mains level : Major causes of deaths in India



News

An analysis published in The Lancet Global Health, which looked at about 9.7 million deaths in India in 2017, found that every condition that was common in one part of India was uncommon elsewhere.

About the study

  • The study is funded by the Ministry of Heath and Family Welfare.
  • It included authors from the Indian Council of Medical Research, and from the global health research wings of the University of Toronto and University of California, San Francisco.

Highlights

YLLs (years of life lost)

  • By the WHO definition, YLLs, or years of life lost, are calculated from the number of deaths multiplied by a standard life expectancy at the age of death.
  • Premature deaths due to various causes expressed as YLLs, too were unevenly distributed in terms of the burden on the states.
  • For example, liver and alcohol-related YLL rates were high in the northeastern states, Bihar, Karnataka, and Maharashtra, accounting for 18% of national YLLs.

DALYs (disability-adjusted life years)

  • In 2017, India had 486 million DALYs (disability-adjusted life years, a measure of the number of years lost due to ill health or disability).
  • The ratio of DALYs to the 9.7 million deaths was about 50 to 1.
  • More than three quarters of deaths and DALYs occurred in rural areas, and males accounted for 54·3% of all DALYs.
  • At all ages, the DALY rate per 100 000 population was 36,300, but rates were higher among rural residents and among males.
  • DALY rates in rural areas were at least twice those of urban areas for certain conditions.

Deaths due to various reasons

  • The Northeastern states, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Haryana, Gujarat, Kerala, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh account for 44% of India’s cancer burden.
  • Suicide YLL rates were highest in the southern states, accounting for 15% of national totals.
  • Road traffic injuries were high in the northern states of UP, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh, accounting for 33% of national totals.
  • Drowning YLL rates, meanwhile, were highest in the central states of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh, and in Assam in the Northeast, accounting for 11% of national totals.
Health Sector – UHC, National Health Policy, Family Planning, Health Insurance, etc.

India Justice Report 2019

Mains Paper 2 : Executive & Judiciary |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : India Justice Report 2019

Mains level : State of Judicial functioning in India



News

  • The India Justice Report 2019 was recently published.

India Justice Report

  • It was commissioned by Tata Trusts.
  • It is prepared by groups like Centre for Social Justice, Common Cause, Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative, DAKSH, Tata Institute of Social Sciences – Prayas and Vidhi Centre for Legal Policy.
  • It looks into the ‘four pillars’ – of Judiciary, Legal Aid, Police and Prisons, analysing the budgets, human resources, personnel workload, diversity, infrastructure and trends against the government’s declared standards and benchmarks.

Highlights of the report

Policing

  • The study took several factors to assess the police system in the states, ranging from modernisation, inducing women, diversity, budgeting, human resource planning and infrastructure.
  • On this front, the best score was achieved by Tamil Nadu – 6.49. UP received a score of 2.98, whereas Bihar got 3.77.
  • UP fared poor in terms of budgeting, spending on police per person, vacancies and diversity.

Prisons

  • This parameter was assessed on various factors ranging from overcrowding, inclusion of women staff, adequate human resources, budgeting, infrastructure, etc. Jharkhand fared the worst with a score of 3.46.
  • It was followed by Uttarakhand (3.72), Punjab (4.35), Andhra Pradesh (4.35) and UP (4.42). Surprisingly, Bihar stood at number six with a score of 5.61. The best in this regard was Kerala with a score of 7.18.

Judiciary

  • This parameter was assessed on availability of judges, clearance of cases, spending on judiciary, etc.
  • Bihar, with a score of 2.41, fared the worst in this regard. It was followed by UP (3.7), Karnataka (3.76), Uttarakhand (4.17) and Jharkhand (4.3).
  • Tamil Nadu again featured on the top in terms of judiciary with a score of 6.99. It was followed by Punjab (6.57), Haryana (6.23) and Maharashtra (5.96).
  • On an average, Bihar saw a bleak growth in expenditure on judiciary in comparison to total spending.
  • From 2011 to 2016, the state expenditure rose by 17.8 per cent; however, expenditure on judiciary rose by only 8 per cent.

Legal aid

  • The report also highlighted the importance of legal aid.
  • It said that almost 80 per cent of India’s 1.25-billion population is eligible for free legal aid, but only 15 million people have availed it since 1995.

States performance

  • Maharashtra has topped the list of states in delivering justice to people followed by Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Haryana.
  • Law and order has always been a major concern in the two big states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
  • A deeper look at the statistics reveals that in almost every aspect, UP and Bihar exchanged the last and second last position.
Judiciary Institutional Issues

Climate Change and Heat-Induced Mortality in India

Mains Paper 1 : Climatic Change |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : About the report

Mains level : Impact of climate change on human mortality



News

  • A new study has projected that 1.5 million more Indians may die per year from extreme heat due to climate change by 2100.

About the Report

  • The study, ‘Climate Change and Heat-Induced Mortality in India’, was conducted by the Climate Impact Lab in collaboration with the Tata Centre for Development at the University of Chicago.

Highlights

  • India’s energy use will be more than double in the next 20 years, driven largely by fossil fuels.
  • If emissions continue to be as high as they are at present, India will see a death rate of about 60 per 100,000 by 2100, the study says.
  • This projected death rate is double the current death rate from oral cancer in India, which is the most common cancer in the country.
  • It says the average annual temperature in India is expected to increase from 24°C to 28°C.
  • The number of extremely hot days (above 35°C) across India is expected to increase by over eight times, from 5.1 per year in 2010 to 42.8 in 2100. By 2050, there are expected to be 15.8 extremely hot days a year.

Statewise data

  • The NCR is projected to see 22 times more extremely hot days and more than 23,000 climate-related deaths annually by 2100 in a high-emission scenario.
  • Odisha is projected to see the highest increase in the number of extremely hot days, at about 30 times more than what it is today.
  • Punjab is projected to experience 85 extremely hot days a year, the highest among all states.
  • Overall, the six states of UP (4,02,280), Bihar (1,36,372), Rajasthan (1,21,809), Andhra (1,16,920), MP (1,08,370) and Maharashtra (1,06,749) are projected to account for over 64 per cent of the heat-related deaths.

Affected by wealth

  • According to the report, the risks associated with extreme temperatures vary around the world and are dependent upon the wealth of a country.
  • For instance, the impact of a single hot day on the annual mortality rate of a wealthy and warm city such as Houston, US, will be 0.4 deaths per 100,000.
  • The same will be double for a warm and poorer city such as Delhi, at 0.8 deaths per 100,000.
Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

India’s labour productivity

Mains Paper 2 : Governance, Transparency & Accountability, Citizens Charters |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Labour Productivity

Mains level : Labour Productivity in India


News

  • An analysis done by India Ratings and Research of Annual Survey of Industries data on India’s labour productivity growth in the organised manufacturing sector shows a disappointing trend.

Falling labour productivity

  • During the high economic growth phase between 2004 and 2008 just before the global financial crisis hit India’s labour productivity grew by over 14 per cent every year.
  • But between financial years of 2011 and 2015, this rate fell to just half of that (7.4 per cent) and continued its deceleration to just 3.7 per cent between financial years of 2016 and 2018.

What is labour productivity and why does it matter?

  • Broadly speaking, productivity is a measure of the efficiency with which resources, both human and material, are converted into goods and services.
  • Besides land and capital, labour productivity plays a crucial role in deciding the rate of economic growth.
  • Indeed, India Ratings report points out that globally labour productivity growth alone accounted for about two-thirds of the GDP growth during FY01-FY10, leaving only one-third to labour/employment growth.

Reasons for decline

  • Productivity is the most powerful engine of driving and sustaining manufacturing growth, and making the sector globally competitive.
  • Labour productivity is crucially dependent on businesses investing in knowledge and innovation even as the governments bring about structural reforms that enable such investments to bear fruit.
  • A lot needs to be done quickly both on the policy front as well as companies level.

What else does the study reveal?

There are two other crucial results from the analysis:

  • One, that between fiscal years 2001 and 2018, the capital intensity — that is, fixed capital used per worker — in India’s organised manufacturing has been rising.
  • Two, notwithstanding this rise in capital intensity, the output intensity — that is, the value of output per fixed capital — has actually declined over the same period.
  • In other words, while more and more capital is being used per unit of labour, it is not yielding commensurate level of output growth.
Labour, Jobs and Employment – Harmonization of labour laws, gender gap, unemployment, etc.

National Health Profile 2019

Mains Paper 2 : Health & Education |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : National Health Profile 2019

Mains level : Highlights of the study



News

  • Union Health Minister has released the 14th edition of the National Health Profile 2019.

What is National Health Profile (NHP)?

  • The NHP is an annual stocktaking exercise on the health of the health sector.
  • It provides a comprehensive framework on the socio-economic health status and the status of demographic and health resources in the country.
  • It is prepared by the Central Bureau of Health Intelligence (CBHI).
  • The NHP was first published in 2005. Ever since the profile has been released every year and this year, is its 14th edition.

Utility of NHP

  • The NHP helps the government navigate health needs and issues of the population and devise area-specific program strategies.
  • Good-quality data can enable policymakers to make evidence-based policies and aid the effective implementation of various schemes.

Highlights of the 14th edition of the NHP

Per capita health expenditure

  • In 2016, India’s Domestic general government health expenditure stood at $16 per capita.
  • This is lower than Norway ($6,366), Canada ($3,274), Japan ($3,538), Republic of Korea ($1,209) and Brunei Darussalam ($599).
  • The American system, though, is considered neither ideal nor economical. This data has been sourced from the Global Health Expenditure Database of the World Health Organisation.

Disease profile

  • The NHP also notes the change in disease profile of the country with a shift towards the non-communicable disease from communicable ones.
  • It has been observed that the non-communicable diseases dominate over communicable in the total disease burden of the country.
  • Dengue and Chikungunya, transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, are a cause of great concern to public health in India.
  • In the same period, disease burden from non-communicable diseases increased from 30 per cent to 55 per cent.
  • DALYs are an international standard of disease burden that measures how much of a normal life span of an individual is taken away by a disease related morbidity of mortality.

Life expectancy

  • Life expectancy in India has increased from 49.7 years in 1970-75 to 68.7 years in 2012-16.
  • For the same period, the life expectancy for females is 70.2 years and 67.4 years for males.
  • For comparison, in last year’s survey, the life expectancy had increased from 49.7 years in 1970-75 to 68.3 years in 2011-15.
  • For the same period, the life expectancy for females is 70 years and 66.9 years for males.

Economically active population

  • On demographics, the survey found the high incidence of the young and economically active population.
  • The survey notes that 27% of the total estimated population of 2016 was below the age of 14 years.
  • Majority (64.7%) of the population were in the age group of 15-59 years i.e. economically active, and 8.5% population were in the age group of 60-85 plus years.

Birth/Death rates

  • There has been a consistent decrease in the birth rate, death rate and natural growth rate in India since 1991 to 2017.
  • As on 2017, India has registered birth rate of 20.2 per population of 1,000 and death rate of 6.3 while the natural growth rate was 13.9 per population of 1,000.
  • The birth rate in rural areas was higher than in the urban.
  • Similarly, the death rate and natural growth rate were also higher in rural areas as compared to the urban.

Sex Ratio

  • As per the NHP, sex ratio (number of females per 1,000 males) in the country has improved from 933 in 2001 to 943 in 2011.
  • In rural areas the sex ratio has increased from 946 to 949.
  • The corresponding increase in urban areas has been of 29 points from 900 to 929.
  • Kerala has recorded the highest sex ratio in respect of total population (1,084), rural population (1,078) and urban (1,091).
  • The lowest sex ratio in rural areas has been recorded in Chandigarh (690).

Dip in IMR

  • The infant mortality rate (IMR) has declined considerably (33 per 1,000 live births in 2016), however differentials of rural (37) and urban (23) are still high.

Various causes of death

  • During the year 2015, 4.13 lakh people lost their life due to accidental injuries and 1.33 lakh people died because of suicide.
  • Suicide rates are increasing significantly among young adults and the maximum number of suicide cases (44,593) is reported between the age group 30-45 years.
  • The total number of cases and deaths due to snake bite are 1.64 lakh and 885, respectively, in 2018.
  • The total number of disabled persons in India is 2.68 crore.

Pollution related illness

  • Air pollution-linked acute respiratory infections contributed 68.47 per cent to the morbidity burden in the country and also to highest mortality rate after pneumonia.
  • Acute diarrhoeal diseases, caused due to drinking contaminated water, caused the second highest morbidity at 21.83 per cent.
  • Cholera cases went up to 651 in 2018 from 508 in 2017, the report showed. Uttar Pradesh followed by Delhi and West Bengal had the highest cases.

Medical education infrastructure

  • The NHP has noted that medical education infrastructure has shown rapid growth over the past few years.
  • The country has 529 medical colleges, 313 Dental Colleges for BDS & 253 Dental Colleges for MDS.
  • The total number of admissions for the academic year 2018-19 in Medical Colleges is 58756.
Health Sector – UHC, National Health Policy, Family Planning, Health Insurance, etc.

Tracking employment in India

Mains Paper 3 : Issues relating growth and development, employment |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Categorisation of Employment, NSSO

Mains level : Unemployment in India



Context

  • Ever since the results of the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) 2017-18 became public — they showed that unemployment in India was at a 45-year high.
  • Since then there has been a vigorous public debate about the true state of unemployment in the country.

A testimony on Unemployment

  • A new study by JNU professors has highlighted the broad trends for employment in India between 2004 and 2018.
  • A key feature of this study is that instead of focusing on unemployment, it focuses only on the “employment” data.
  • It does so by looking at three comparable surveys conducted by the NSSO the Employment-Unemployment Surveys (EUS) of 2004-05 and 2011-12, and the PLFS of 2017-18.

Categorization of Employment

  • The NSSO surveys divide the entire population into three categories.
  • Category 1 consists of people who were involved in economic activity (or work) during the reference period of the survey.
  • These individuals are labelled as “Employed” — and Category 1 can be subdivided into categories such as self-employed, salaried employees, and casual labourers.
  • Category 2 consists of people who were not engaged in any economic activity during the reference period of the survey, but were looking for work if work was available. These individuals are labelled as “Unemployed”.
  • Taken together, categories 1 and 2 form the country’s “labour force”.
  • Category 3 constitutes people who are neither engaged in work nor available for it.
  • This category — labelled as “Not in the labour force” — would have a large number of people, including those who have retired, those studying, those unable to work due to disability, and those attending “only” to domestic duties.
  • The new study focused on the level and trends of the ‘Employed’ — that is, Category 1.

Key Findings of the Study

  • On the whole, the study found that the total employment in the country grew by 4.5 crore in the 13 years between EUS 2004-05 and PLFS 2017-18.
  • It represents a growth of just 0.8 per cent — less than half the rate at which the overall population grew, which was 1.7 per cent.

Urban-rural spread of employment

  • Of the 4.5 crore increase in employment, 4.2 crore happened in the urban areas while rural employment either contracted or was stagnant between 2011 and 2017.

Male-female spread of employment

  • Over the 13 years, male employment grew by 6 crore but female employment fell by 1.5 crore.
  • In other words, while there were 11.15 crore women with jobs in 2004, only 9.67 crores were employed 13 years later.
  • Women’s share in employment has fallen from an already low level of 27.08% in 2004 to 21.17 per cent in 2017.

Youth Employment

  • India is one of the world’s youngest nations, but employment data according to age groups shows that youth employment (those between the ages of 15 and 24) has fallen from 8.14 crore in 2004 to 5.34 crore in 2017.
  • However, employment in the 25-59 age group and the 60 years and above group has gone up.
  • The sustained schooling reforms seem to have shown their impact in the employment of children below 14 years of age reducing from 61 lakh in 2004 to 27 lakh in 2011, and just 11 lakh in 2017.

Employment by education level

  • The emerging economy appears to be leaving behind the illiterates and those with incomplete primary education.
  • Employment in this category has gone down from 20.08 crore in 2004 to 14.2 crore in 2017, and their share in those employed has gone down from 48.77 per cent in 2004 to 31.09 per cent in 2017.
  • Employment has risen for all other categories of education from primary, secondary, to postgraduate and above.

Organised sector

  • The organised sector represents firms that are registered with regulatory authorities and are bound by a variety of labour laws
  • Here the rate of employment growth has been the fastest, and its share in the total employed has risen from 8.9 per cent in 2004 to 14 per cent in 2017.The sector, too, has grown.
  • In fact, while its rate of growth has been slower, its overall share in the economy has gone up from 37.1 per cent in 2004 to 47.7 per cent in 2017.
  • However, the pace of growth of the unorganised sector has moderated since 2011.
  • Both these sectors have grown at the expense of the agri-cropping sector, where employment has fallen from 21.9 per cent in 2004 to 17.4 per cent in 2017.
  • In essence, the results show that those who are poor, illiterate, and unskilled are increasingly losing out on jobs.
Labour, Jobs and Employment – Harmonization of labour laws, gender gap, unemployment, etc.

Annual Crime in India Report 2017

Mains Paper 2 : Ministries & Departments Of The Government |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : NCRB

Mains level : Key highlights of the report



News

  • After a delay of two years the annual Crime in India Report 2017 was published by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB).

Highlights of the report

Crime against women

  • As per the report, 359849 cases of crime against women were reported in the country.
  • Uttar Pradesh topped the list with 56,011 cases followed by Maharashtra with 31,979 cases and West Bengal 30,002.
  • Majority of cases under crimes against women were registered under ‘Cruelty by Husband or his Relatives’ (27.9%) followed by ‘Assault on Women with Intent to Outrage her Modesty’ (21.7%), ‘Kidnapping & Abduction of Women’ (20.5%) and ‘Rape’ (7.0%),” the report said.

Riots

  • As per the report, 58,880 incidents of rioting were reported, of which the maximum incidents were reported from Bihar – 11,698, followed by Uttar Pradesh – 8,990 and Maharashtra – 7,743.
  • Of the total riots reported, communal and sectarian riots accounted for 723 and 183 incidents respectively.
  • There were 805 riots due to caste conflict and 1909 riots occurred due to political reasons, the report said.

Hate Crimes

  • The incidents registered under the Scheduled Caste Prevention of Atrocities Act saw an increase from 5,082 incidents reported in 2016 to 5,775 in 2017.
  • Incidents of crime related to Scheduled Tribes dipped from 844 in 2016 to 720 in 2017.

Crime against Children

  • A total of 95,893 cases of kidnapping and abduction were registered during 2017, showing an increase of 9.0% over 2016 (88,008 cases).
  • A total of 63,349 children (20,555 male, 42,691 female and 103 transgender) were reported missing in 2017.
  • During the year 2017, a total of 70,440 children were recovered/traced,” the report said.

New Categories

Fake news

  • The NCRB for the first time collected data on circulation of “false/fake news and rumours.”
  • Under the category, maximum incidents were reported from Madhya Pradesh (138), Uttar Pradesh (32) and Kerala (18).

Anti-National activities

  • A new category of offences committed by various categories of “Anti-National Elements” was included.
  • It showed that the maximum offences were committed by Left Wing Extremist (LWE) operatives (652), followed by North East insurgents (421) and Terrorists (Jihadi and other elements) (371).
  • The maximum number of killings was carried out by LWE insurgents (82).
  • As many as 72 of these killings took place in Chhattisgarh. This was followed by killings by terrorists (36) — 34 in J&K alone. North East insurgents killed 10 people.

No data on lynching

  • The data collected under the new sub-heads of death due to mob lynching, murder by influential people, killing ordered by khap panchayat and murder committed for religious reason have not been published.
  • This data was ready and fully compiled and analysed.
  • The decision to collect data on lynchings had been taken in the wake of a spate of lynching incidents across the country through 2015-16.
  • The idea was that such data collection would help the government formulate its policies better in tackling these crimes.
  • Lynchings happen for a variety of reasons which include suspicion of theft, child lifting, cattle smuggling or communal reasons.

Back2Basics

National Crime Records Bureau

  • The NCRB is an Indian government agency responsible for collecting and analysing crime data as defined by the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and Special and Local Laws (SLL).
  • NCRB is headquartered in New Delhi and is part of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).
  • NCRB was set-up in 1986 to function as a repository of information on crime and criminals so as to assist the investigators in linking crime to the perpetrators.
  • It was set up based on the recommendation of the Task force,1985 and National Police Commission,1977.
Human Rights Issues

India Innovation Index 2019

Mains Paper 3 : Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways Etc. |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : India Innovation Index 2019

Mains level : Significance of the index



News

  • NITI Aayog with Institute for Competitiveness as the knowledge partner released the India Innovation Index (III) 2019.

India Innovation Index (III) 2019

  • The index attempts to create an extensive framework for the continual evaluation of the innovation environment of 29 states and seven UTs in India.
  • It intends to perform the following three functions-
  1. Ranking of states and UTs based on their index scores
  2. Recognizing opportunities and challenges, and
  3. Assisting in tailoring governmental policies to foster innovation
  • The India Innovation Index 2019 is calculated as the average of the scores of its two dimensions – Enablers and Performance.
  • The states have been bifurcated into three categories: major states, north-east and hill states, and union territories / city states / small states.

Performance of states

  • Karnataka is the most innovative major state in India.
  • Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Telangana, Haryana, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh form the remaining top ten major states respectively.
  • The top ten major states are majorly concentrated in southern and western India.
  • Sikkim and Delhi take the top spots among the north- eastern & hill states, and union territories/city states/small states respectively.
  • Delhi, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, and Uttar Pradesh are the most efficient states in translating inputs into output.

Significance

  • The study examines the innovation ecosystem of Indian states and union territories.
  • The aim is to create a holistic tool which can be used by policymakers across the country to identify the challenges to be addressed and strengths to build on when designing policies.
Innovation Ecosystem in India

Index of Industrial Production (IIP)

Mains Paper 3 : Issues relating growth and development, employment |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : IIP

Mains level : Significance of IIP as a measure of economic growth


News

  • The data for the “Quick Estimates of Index of Industrial Production” was recently released by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI).
  • It stated that India’s industrial sector production contracted by 1.1 per cent in August when compared to the production in the same month in 2018.
  • As far as such year-on-year comparisons go, the last time a reduction in the IIP happened was in June 2017. But this time, the fall was sharper — the index has fallen to an 81-month low.

What is the IIP?

  • As the name suggests, the Index of Industrial Production (IIP) maps the change in the volume of production in Indian industries.
  • More formally, it chooses a basket of industrial products — ranging from the manufacturing sector to mining to energy, creates an index by giving different weight to each sector and then tracks the production every month.
  • Finally, the index value is compared to the value it had in the same month last year to figure out the economy’s industrial health.

Which sectors are lagging in production?

  • There are two ways in which IIP data can be viewed.
  • The first is to look at sectoral performance.
  • In this the whole industrial economy is divided into three sectors; the first is manufacturing with a weight of 77.6 per cent in the index, the second is mining with a weight of 14.4 per cent and third is electricity with a weight of 8 per cent.
  • The second way to look at the same production is to look at the way such industrial products are used; this is called the use-based classification.

Low in trends

  • From a sectoral point of view, it can be seen how the growth rate in the manufacturing production, which has the biggest weight in the index, has been negative.
  • In fact, 15 out of the 23 sub-groups in the manufacturing sector showed negative growth in August 2019.
  • The worst were motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers, where production declined by over 23 per cent, and machinery and equipment, where production fell by close to 22 per cent.
  • Electricity production, too, shrank while mining production barely managed to be what it was in August 2018.
  • If one looks at the use-based classification in the same table, one can see the sustained shrinkage in two key groups — capital goods and consumer durables.

What is indicates?

  • This contraction is at the heart of what is wrong with the Indian economy at present.
  • The decline in the production of capital goods, which is the machinery used to produce other goods, shows that there is little desire/demand in the market to invest in existing or new capacity.
  • The decline in consumer durables such a refrigerator or a car shows that existing inventories are not yet being cleared because consumers continue to avoid buying these products.

How useful are monthly IIP figures to draw a conclusion about India’s growth?

  • IIP figures are monthly data and as such it keeps going up and down.
  • In fact, the release calls them “quick estimates” because they tend to get revised after a month or two.
  • As such, it is true that one should not take just one month’s IIP data and project it for the whole year or indeed use it to conclude that the full year’s economic growth will be low.
  • However, a dip in IIP, especially the sustained weakness in manufacturing industries, does not bode well for India’s economic growth in the near term.
Industrial Sector Updates – Industrial Policy, Ease of Doing Business, etc.

India’s industrial production shrinks 1.1% in August

Mains Paper 3 : Indian Economy |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : IIP

Mains level : Economic Slowdown


News

India’s Index of Industrial Production (IIP) slid 1.1% in August 2019 amid worrying signs of an economy. This pulled down the overall growth of the index to 2.4%.

Signs of a problem

  • Passenger vehicle sales in the country dropped 24% in September — the 11th month of decline in a row. Car sales are taken to be the benchmark for a market economy’s health.
  • The index for electricity production also slipped by 0.9%. Power output is generally tied to its demand, which signifies economic activity. 
  • The mining index grew only 0.1%.

Agriculture worries

  • Agriculture has been lackluster for quite some time exacerbated by a series of droughts. The monsoon this year was delayed and erratic and there are complaints of droughts in many states.

Manufacturing worries

  • 15 out of 23 industries in the manufacturing sector shrank in August.
  • Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers tanked the fell the most – 23%. 
  • Machinery and equipment shrank 21.7% while ‘other manufacturing’ slipped 18%. 
  • Growth was seen in mostly less value-adding industries such as basic metal manufacturing. 
  • Capital goods shrank 21% while infrastructure and construction goods fell 4.5%. 

The government tried to solve

  • The government has cut corporate taxes to boost consumer demand and spending.
  • RBI has been reducing lending rates to increase the availability of funds.

Conclusion

In this situation, shrinking manufacturing can increase job losses and signify that consumer demand remains muted.


Back2Basics

IIP and PMI

A measure of manufacturing

Economic Indicators-GDP, FD,etc

Behavioural aspect of farmer suicides

Mains Paper 2 : Laws, Institutions & Bodies Constituted For The Vulnerable Sections |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Not Much

Mains level : Strategies to combat farmer's distress in India



News

  • Farmer suicides, which have till now been studied economically and agriculturally, are now being looked at from behavioural and psychological angles.

Study on farmer’s suicide

  • A study is being conducted under the National Agricultural Science Fund of IICAR in three states — Punjab, Telangana and Maharashtra.
  • Till now the issue of farmer suicide was being looked at only from economic and agricultural angles.
  • The study has looked at it from behavioural, psychological and cultural perspectives in addition to the earlier two.

Major causes of suicide

  • Since most discussions and parleys on suicides are overtaken by issues of crop failures, rising debts, new farming techniques, the psychological aspect is largely ignored.
  • One of the major causes behind suicidal intent is depression, found the researchers.
  • It needs to be understood that at times a farmer under a debt of Rs 2 lakh shows a tendency to end his life, while another under a debt of Rs 10 lakh does not.

Need of the hour: Psychological assistance

  • The study suggested roping in psychologists and counselors on various issues.
  • They included battling depressive ruminations, suicidal ideations, negative cognitions, hopelessness, helplessness.
  • It aimed at recognising and managing stressors like financial distress, relationship problems, and enhancing psychological resources through emotional well being, and mindfulness.

Model of 7’s

  • The researchers developed a ‘7D’ model of triggering and confounding factors and a ‘7R’ model of preventive and protecting factors to deal with the problem of farmer suicides.

‘7D’ model

It encapsulates:

  1. Drugs,
  2. Debt,
  3. Disease,
  4. Disputes,
  5. Depression,
  6. Disrepute and
  7. Death

 ‘7R’ model

It looks at prevention of suicides. It consists:

  1. Remunerative agriculture,
  2. Resilience building,
  3. Rational expenditure,
  4. Reassurance through connectivity,
  5. Righteous conduct,
  6. Religious support and
  7. Responsible reporting

Way forward

  • Farmers don’t need money only, they need motivation too.
  • Along with subsidies, increased farm profits, the focus should also be on resilience building and problem solving skills of farming families.
  • In suicide-prone states, agricultural institutes and scientists should start distributing seeds of resilience, tolerance and contentment among farmers, suggested researchers.
  • Agri universities can play a powerful role in dissipating the culture of shame associated with mental illness and depression as it is the fear of stigma that acts as a barrier to seek appropriate treatment.
Health Sector – UHC, National Health Policy, Family Planning, Health Insurance, etc.

[pib] School Education Quality Index (SEQI)

Mains Paper 2 : Health & Education |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : SEQI

Mains level : Promoting quality education in India



News

  • The first edition of SEQI was recently released by NITI Aayog, in the presence of NITI Aayog.

School Education Quality Index

  1. SEQI was developed by NITI Aayog to evaluate the performance of States and UTs in the school education sector.
  2. It is developed through a collaborative process, including key stakeholders such as Ministry of HRD, the World Bank and sector experts.
  3. The index aims to bring an ‘outcomes’ focus to education policy by providing States and UTs with a platform to identify their strengths and weaknesses and undertake requisite course corrections or policy interventions.
  4. In line with NITI Aayog’s mandate to foster the spirit of competitive and cooperative federalism, SEQI strives to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and best practices across States and UTs.

Key indicators

  • The index consists of 30 critical indicators that assess the delivery of quality education. These indicators are categorized as below:

Category 1: Outcomes

  • Domain 1: Learning outcomes
  • Domain 2: Access outcomes
  • Domain 3: Infrastructure and facilities for outcomes
  • Domain 4: Equity outcomes

Category 2: Governance processes aiding outcomes

States performance

  • States and UTs are ranked on their overall performance in the reference year 2016-17, as well as on their annual incremental performance between the reference year and base year (2015-16).
  • The rankings present incredible insights on the status of school education across States/UTs and their relative progress over time.
Primary and Secondary Education – RTE, Education Policy, SEQI, RMSA, Committee Reports, etc.

All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) 2018-19

Mains Paper 2 : Health & Education |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : AISHE, Various terms mentioned

Mains level : Key highlights of the survey


News

  • Union HRD Ministry has released the All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) 2018-19.
  • AISHE 2018-19 findings are based on the responses from 962 universities, 38,179 colleges and 9,190 standalone institutions.

All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE)

  • To portray the status of higher education in the country, Ministry of HRD has endeavored to conduct an annual web-based All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) since 2010-11.
  • The survey covers all the Institutions in the country engaged in higher education.
  • Data is being collected on several parameters such as teachers, student enrolment, programmes, examination results, education finance, and infrastructure.
  • Indicators of educational development such as Institution Density, Gross Enrolment Ratio, Pupil-teacher ratio, Gender Parity Index, Per Student Expenditure will also be calculated from the data collected through AISHE.

Highlights of the survey

Fall in professional education pursuance

  • The government defines professional education as higher education programmes that are meant for students to acquire knowledge, skills, and competencies for a specific profession or a class of occupations.
  • Student’s enrolment in B.Tech and M.Tech programmes has seen a dramatic fall.
  • This has led to an overall dip in enrolment in professional courses, which has hit a four-year low.
  • Since the academic year 2015-16, the number of students pursuing professional courses at the undergraduate level has decreased by 7,21,506 (roughly 9%).
  • Enrolment in PG professional programmes dropped by almost 32%, from 18,07,646 in 2015-16 to 12,36,404 in 2018-19.

Fall in enrolment

  • The drastic dip comes at a time when student enrolment in higher education is at an all-time high.
  • According to the survey, total enrolment in higher education has been estimated to be 3.74 crore, as opposed to 3.66 crore the year before.
  • The waning popularity of professional degrees seems to have renewed interest in academics.

Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER)

  • GER is a statistical measure for determining the number of students enrolled in UG, PG and research-level studies within the country and expressed as a percentage of the population in the 18-23 years age group.
  • According to AISHE 2018-19, the present GER in higher education is 26.3%, up from 25.8% in 2017-18.

Gender Parity on rise

  • Gender Parity Index (GPI), the female: male ratio in higher education measures progress towards gender equity.
  • Out of the total 3.74 crore students in higher education in 2018-19, 1.92 crore are men, and 1.82 crore are women.
  • The GPI has increased over the last five years, from 0.92 in 2014-15 to 1 in 2018-19.

Humanities is more popular

  • The highest number of students are enrolled in Arts courses.
  • The total number of students enrolled in Arts courses are 93.49 lakh, of which 46.96% are male and 53.03% are female.
  • Science is the second major stream with 47.13 lakh students, of which 49% are male and 51% are female.
  • Commerce is the third major stream with 40.3 lakh students enrolled. The share of male students enrolled in Commerce is 51.2%, whereas female enrolment is 48.8%,” the survey states.
Higher Education – RUSA, NIRF, HEFA, etc.

The burden of malnutrition in under-5 children in India

Mains Paper 2 : Health & Education |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Malnutrition

Mains level : U5 malnutrition and mortality in India



News

  • A report published in The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health gives comprehensive estimates of disease burden due to child and maternal malnutrition and the trends of its indicators in every state of India from 1990 to 2017.

Key findings

  • The death rate attributable to malnutrition in under-5 children in India has dropped by two-thirds from 1990 to 2017.
  • Malnutrition is, however, still the underlying risk factor for 68% of the deaths in under-five children in India.
  • The Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY) rate attributable to malnutrition in children varies 7-fold among the states — a gap between a high of 74,782 in Uttar Pradesh and a low of 11,002 in Kerala.
  • Other states with a high burden are Bihar, Assam and Rajasthan. followed by Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Nagaland and Tripura.

U5 mortality

  • The proportion of under-5 deaths attributable to malnutrition, which is 68.2% across India, ranges between a high of 72.7% in Bihar and a low of 50.8% in Kerala.
  • Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh and Uttar Pradesh are states with a high such proportion, while Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu, Mizoram and Goa have the lowest proportions of such deaths.
  • Among the malnutrition indicators, low birth weight is the largest contributor to child deaths in India, followed by child growth failure which includes stunting, underweight, and wasting.
Mother and Child Health – Immunization Program, BPBB, PMJSY, PMMSY, etc.

In news: Survey of India

Mains Paper 2 : Governance, Transparency & Accountability, Citizens Charters |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Survey of India

Mains level : Read the attached story



Context

  • India’s oldest scientific department, the Survey of India (SoI) historically tasked with mapping the country will for the first time rely on drones to map the country.

Why such move?

  • The aim is to map 75% of India’s geography— about 2.4 million sq km of the 3.2 million sq km — within the next two years.
  • The organisation aims to procure about 300 drones — so far about 30 have been sourced — for the gargantuan exercise.
  • However forests, hills and deserts are likely to be left out.
  • Every square kilometre mapped by drones will be encapsulated in 2500 pictures and thus be a trove of digital data.

For Precise Mapping

  • A consequence of the mapping will be creating high resolution maps of land in villages facilitating the digitization of land titles in villages, according to officials involved with the survey.
  • Currently the best SoI maps have a resolution of 1:250000, meaning a 1 cm on the map represent 2500 cm on the ground.
  • The maps being prepared, according to senior officials associated with the project will be of 1:500 resolution, meaning 1 cm will represent 500 cm.

Sorting rural issues

  • A major consequence of the drone-based exercise will be the mapping of settled habitations in villages (called abaadi areas in legal parlance).
  • Based on the availability of accurate maps, residents will finally be able to get property cards as well as proper legal titles to their lands.

Back2Basics

Survey of India

  • The Survey of India is India’s central engineering agency in charge of mapping and surveying.
  • First modern scientific survey of India” was undertaken by W. Mather in 1793–96 on instructions of Superintendent of Salem and Baramahal (TN), Col. Alexander Read.
  • Set up in 1767 to help consolidate the territories of the British East India Company, it is one of the oldest Engineering Departments of the GoI.
  • Its members are from Survey of India Service cadre of Civil Services of India and Army Officers from the Indian Army Corps of Engineers.
  • It is headed by the Surveyor General of India. At present, Survey of India is headed by Lt Gen Girish Kumar, VSM.

Responsibilities

  • Advisor to Govt: Survey of India acts as adviser to the Government of India on all cartography of India related matters, such as geodesy, mapping and map reproduction.
  • Geo names: It is responsible for the naming convention and spellings of names of geographical features of India.
  • Certification and publication: Scrutiny and certification of external boundaries of India and Coastline on maps published by the other agencies including private publishers.
  • Surveys: geodetic datum, geodetic control network, topographical control, geophysical surveys, cadastral surveying, geologic maps, aeronautical charts within India, such as for forests, army cantonments, large scale cities, guide maps, developmental or conservation projects, etc.
  • National borders: Demarcation of the borders and external boundaries of India as well as advice on the demarcation of inter-state boundaries.

RBI report on Loan Waivers impact

Mains Paper 3 : Indian Economy |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Not Much

Mains level : Impact of loan waivers on economy


News

  • Recently the RBI shared the report of an Internal Working Group (IWG), which was set up in February to look at, among other things, the impact of farm loan waivers on state finances.
  • Since 2014-15, many state governments have announced farm loan waivers.

Highlights of the report

  • The report has shown how farm loan waivers dented state finances and urged governments — both central and state — to avoid resorting to farm loan waivers.
  • This was done for a variety of reasons including relieving distressed farmers struggling with lower incomes in the wake of repeated droughts and demonetization.
  • Also crucial in this regard was the timing of elections and several observers of the economy including the RBI warned against the use of farm loan waivers.

Impact of Loan Waivers

Impact on state finances

  • Chart 1 from the RBI report details the impact on state finances in successive years.
  • Typically, once announced, farm loans waivers are staggered over three to five years.
  • Between 2014-15 and 2018-19, the total farm loan waiver announced by different state governments was Rs 2.36 trillion. Of this, Rs 1.5 trillion has already been waived.
  • For perspective, the last big farm loan waiver was announced by the UPA government in 2008-09 and it was Rs 0.72 trillion. Of this, actual waivers were only Rs 0.53 trillion — staggered between 2008-09 and 2011-12.
  • In other words, in the past five years, just a handful of states have already waived three-times the amount waived by the central government in 2008-09.
  • The actual waivers peaked in 2017-18 — in the wake of demonetization and its adverse impact on farm incomes — and amounted to almost 12 per cent of the states’ fiscal deficit.

Impact on economic growth

  • In essence, a farm loan waiver by the government implies that the government settles the private debt that a farmer owes to a bank.
  • But doing so eats into the government’s resources, which, in turn, leads to one of following two things: either the concerned government’s fiscal deficit goes up or it has to cut down its expenditure.
  • A higher fiscal deficit, even if it is at the state level, implies that the amount of money available for lending to private businesses — both big and small — will be lower.
  • It also means the cost at which this money would be lent (or the interest rate) would be higher. If fresh credit is costly, there will be fewer new companies, and less job creation.
  • If the state government doesn’t want to borrow the money from the market and wants to stick to its fiscal deficit target, it will be forced to accommodate by cutting expenditure.
  • More often than not, states choose to cut capital expenditure — that is the kind of expenditure which would have led to the creation of productive assets such as more roads, buildings, schools etc — instead of the revenue expenditure.
  • But cutting capital expenditure also undermines the ability to produce and grow in the future.

Overall impact

  • As such, farm loan waivers are not considered prudent because they hurt overall economic growth apart from ruining the credit culture in the economy since they incentivise defaulters and penalise those who pay back their loans.

How much do state finances matter for India’s macroeconomic stability?

  • Far too often, analyses of the Indian economy focuses on the Union government’s finances alone.
  • But the ground realities are fast changing. The study of state finances reveals that all the states, collectively, now spend 30 per cent more than the central government.
  • Moreover, since 2014, state governments have increasingly borrowed money from the market.
  • In 2016-17, for instance, total net borrowings by all the states were almost equal (roughly 86 per cent) of the amount that the Centre borrowed.
  • In other words, state-level finances are just as important as the central government finances for India’s macroeconomic stability and future economic growth.

Recommendations

  • The IWG recommends that GoI and state governments should undertake a holistic review of the agricultural policies and their implementation.
  • Both should evaluate the effectiveness of current subsidy policies with regard to agri inputs and credit in a manner which will improve the overall viability of agriculture in a sustainable manner.
  • It stated that loan waivers should be avoided.
Agricultural Marketing Reforms – eNAM, Model APMC Act, Eco Survey Reco, etc.

India Iodine Survey 2018-19 Report

Mains Paper 2 : Health & Education |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Highlights of the report

Mains level : Iodine related deficiencies in Children



News

  • Tamil Nadu has the lowest consumption of iodized salt despite being the third biggest producer of salt in the country, according to a first-of-its-kind national survey to measure the coverage of iodised salt.

Highlights of the Survey

  • The study shows that 76.3% of Indian households consumed adequately iodised salt, which is salt with at least 15 parts per million of iodine.
  • The five worst performers were Tamil Nadu (61.9%), Andhra Pradesh (63.9%), Rajasthan (65.5%), Odisha (65.8%) and Jharkhand (68.8%).
  • The survey was conducted by Nutrition International in collaboration with the AIIMS and the Indian Coalition for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD).
  • The survey tested the iodine content in samples of cooking salt from households to estimate the coverage of iodised salt.
  • The survey revealed that 13 out of 36 States have already achieved Universal Salt Iodisation or have 90% of households with access to adequately iodised salt.

Why such difference

  • The northeastern States are doing very well with respect to iodised salt consumption at the household level because of the distance they have from the three salt producing centres — Gujarat, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu.
  • By and large most States get their salt from Gujarat and Rajasthan and because of the distance, it is sent by rail.
  • Salt-producing States have access to common (or non-iodised) salt and, therefore, they start consuming it since it is readily available.

Salt production in India

  • Rajasthan, which is the second largest producer of salt, also figured among the five worst covered States.
  • Gujarat produces 71% of salt in the country, followed by Rajasthan at 17% and Tamil Nadu at 11%.
  • The rest of the country accounts for a mere 1% of salt produced.

Significance of Iodised Salt

  • Iodine is a vital micro-nutrient for optimal mental and physical development of human beings.
  • Deficiency of iodine can result in a range of disabilities and disorders such as goitre, hypothyroidism, cretinism, abortion, still births, mental retardation and psychomotor defects.
  • Children born in iodine deficient areas may have up to 13.5 IQ points less than those born in iodine sufficient areas.
  • India made fortification of salt with iodine mandatory for direct human consumption in 1992. This was relaxed in 2000 and then reimposed in 2005.
  • In 2011, the Supreme Court, too, mandated universal iodisation for the control of iodine deficiencies.

Key recommendations

  • The key recommendation of the study is to sustain the momentum so that iodine coverage does not fall below current levels.
  • It also recommends that the States and the Centre work together to address the current gaps and look into issues that vary from one State to another, leading to adequately iodised salt not being produced.
Mother and Child Health – Immunization Program, BPBB, PMJSY, PMMSY, etc.

No Central Asian ancestry in Indus Valley Civilization

Mains Paper 1 : Arts & Culture |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Various sites of IVC

Mains level : Theory of Aryan Origin


hi


News

  • Throwing fresh light on the Indus Valley Civilization, a study of DNA from skeletal remains excavated from Rakhigarhi was recently conducted.
  • The study contends that the theory of the Harappans having Steppe pastoral or ancient Iranian farmer ancestry thus stands refuted.
  • Prior to the arrival of steppe pastoralists bringing their Indo-European languages about 4,000 years ago, we find no evidence of large-scale movements of people into South Asia.
  • It also concluded that the hunter-gatherers of South Asia, who then became a settled people, have an independent origin.

No Mass-migration of Aryans

  • The finding also negates the hypothesis about mass migration during Harappan times from outside South Asia.
  • Researchers successfully sequenced the first genome of an individual from Harappa and combining it with archaeological data.
  • It found that hunter-gatherers of South Asia had an independent origin, and authored the settled way of life in this part of the world.
  • They do not contain genome from either the Steppe region or ancient Iranian farmers.
  • The genetic continuity from hunter gatherer to modern times is visible in the DNA results.
  • The study finds that the same hunter-gatherer communities developed into agricultural communities and formed the Harappan civilization.

No migration from Central Asia

  • India had a heterogeneous population right from the beginning of settled life. There was a hint that settled life and domestication went from South Asia to West Asia.
  • The researchers also suggest that there was a movement of people from east to west as the Harappan people’s presence is evident at sites like Gonur in Turkmenistan and Sahr-i-Sokhta in Iran.
  • As the Harappans traded with Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Persian Gulf and almost all across South Asia, there was bound to be movement of people resulting in a mixed genetic history.

Origins of farming

  • The researchers concluded that farming in South Asia was not due to the movement of people from the farming cultures of the west and that local foragers adopted it.
  • In Europe, ancient-DNA studies have shown that agriculture tended to spread through an influx of people with ancestry in Anatolia, in modern day Turkey.
  • The new study shows a similar dynamic in Iran and Turan (southern Central Asia), where the researchers found that Anatolian-related ancestry and farming arrived around the same time.
  • In South Asia, however, the story appears quite different.
  • The researchers found an absence of Anatolian-related ancestry.
  • They saw that Iranian-related ancestry in South Asians comes from a lineage that separated from ancient Iranian farmers and hunter-gatherers before those groups split from each other, nearly 9,000 years ago.

Rakhigarhi- the epicenter

  • The discovery of two more mounds at the Harappan site of Rakhigarhi in Hisar district, Haryana, has led to archaeologists establishing it as the biggest Harappan civilisation site.
  • Until now, specialists in the Harappan civilisation had argued that Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan was the largest among the 2,000 Harappan sites known to exist in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
  • The archaeological remains at Mohenjo-daro extend around 300 hectares.
  • Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Ganweriwala (all in Pakistan) and Rakhigarhi and Dholavira (both in India) are ranked as the first to the fifth biggest Harappan sites.

Back2Basics

Aryan Invasion Theory

  • In 1953 Mortimer Wheeler proposed that the invasion of an Indo-European tribe from Central Asia, the “Aryans”, caused the decline of the Indus Civilization.
  • As evidence, he cited a group of 37 skeletons found in various parts of Mohenjo-daro, and passages in the Vedas referring to battles and forts.
  • However, scholars soon started to reject Wheeler’s theory, since the skeletons belonged to a period after the city’s abandonment and none were found near the citadel.
Historical and Archaeological Findings in News

Status of Policing in India Report 2019

Mains Paper 1 : Salient features of Indian Society |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : About the report

Mains level : Need for Police Reforms


News

  • In a new report that looks at the working conditions of police in India, one key finding is about the political pressure perceived by police, and the extent to which this hampers their investigations.

About the Report

  • ‘Status of Policing in India Report 2019: Police Adequacy and Working Conditions’ has been prepared by Common Cause and the Lokniti programme of the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies (CSDS).

Key Findings

  • 28% police personnel believe that pressure from politicians is the biggest hindrance in a crime investigation.
  • Taking into account various kinds of obstacles, 2 in 5 police personnel believe that these pressures are the biggest obstacle in crime investigation.
  • The other obstacles cited were related to society, legal systems and internal working systems in police.

Popular cases

  • 38% personnel reported always facing pressure from politicians in cases of crime involving influential persons.
  • Roughly one third also reported “always” facing pressure from their seniors in the police force.
  • This proportion drops to one-fifth of the police “always” facing pressure from media, while about 14% reported that they “always” faced pressure from human rights organisations/NGOs, judiciary and the common public in cases involving influential people.

Minorities at risk

  • One in two police personnel surveyed feel that Muslims are likely to be “naturally prone” to committing crimes.
  • It also found that 35 per cent of police personnel interviewed for the survey think it is natural for a mob to punish the “culprit” in cases of cow slaughter, and 43 per cent think it is natural for a mob to punish someone accused of rape.
Police Reforms – SC directives, NPC, other committees reports

India’s Child Well-being Report

Mains Paper 2 : Health & Education |

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Highlights of the report

Mains level : Child healthcare in India



News

  • India’s Child Well-being Index was recently released.

India’s Child Well-being Report

  • The India child well-being index is a crucial report that can be mined both by the Government and civil organisations to achieve the goal of child well-being and we will use this report effectively.
  • The report is released by the NGO World Vision India and research institute IFMR LEAD.
  • One of the primary objectives of this index is to garner attention to the under-researched theme of child well-being in India, and inspire further academic and policy conversations on related issues.
  • This report provides insights on health, nutrition, education, and sanitation and child protection.
  • The report is an attempt to look at how India fairs on child well-being using a composite child well-being index.

Performance by the states

  • Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh and Puducherry topped the charts in the child well-being index, a tool designed to measure and tracks children’s well-being comprehensively.
  • Meghalaya, Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh featured at the bottom.

24 indicators

  • Focusing on the three key dimensions, 24 indicators were selected to develop the computation of the child well-being index.
  • The dimensions of the index include healthy individual development, positive relationships and protective contexts.
  • The report highlights the multi-dimensional approach towards measuring child well-being — going beyond mere income poverty.

A policy trigger

  • The research has brought to the fore compelling insights on child well-being in India.
  • The report, meanwhile, calls for States to look at their respective scores on the dimensions of child well-being, and to prepare for priority areas of intervention with specific plans of action.
  • It also hopes to trigger policy level changes, seek better budgetary allocations and initiate discussions with all stakeholders, which can help in enhancing the quality of life of all children in the country.
Mother and Child Health – Immunization Program, BPBB, PMJSY, PMMSY, etc.