From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Dengue
Mains level : Not Much
Central Idea: Serum Institute of India and Panacea Biotec have applied to the ICMR’s call for Expression of Interest for collaborative Phase-III clinical trials for an indigenous dengue vaccine.
What is Dengue?
|Transmission||Primarily transmitted through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes|
|Virus and Serotypes||Dengue virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family
Four distinct serotypes: DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4
|Symptoms||High fever, severe headache, joint and muscle pain, rash, pain behind the eyes, mild bleeding|
|Severe Dengue||Progression to severe dengue can cause plasma leakage, bleeding, organ impairment|
|Geographic Distribution||Endemic in more than 100 countries, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions|
|Incidence and Global Impact||100-400 million dengue infections occur annually globally, affecting healthcare systems and economies|
|Vector and Breeding Sites||Aedes aegypti mosquito breeds in stagnant water containers found near human dwellings|
|Treatment||No specific antiviral treatment available; supportive care, rest, fluid intake, symptom management|
|Prevention and Control||Reduce mosquito breeding sites, proper water storage, cleaning of water containers, use of insecticides|
Dengue Virus Disease and Global Impact
- Dengue virus disease causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, with 2 to 2.5 lakh (200,000 to 250,000) cases reported annually in India.
- The global incidence of dengue has increased dramatically, with over half of the world’s population at risk.
- The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified dengue as one of the top ten global health threats in 2019.
- Currently, there is no specific treatment for dengue, highlighting the urgent need for effective vaccines.
Desirable Characteristics of a Dengue Vaccine
The ICMR highlights the desirable characteristics of a dengue vaccine, including a-
- Favorable safety profile
- Protection against all four serotypes of dengue
- Reduced risk of severe disease and death
- Induction of a sustained immune response and
- Effectiveness regardless of previous sero-status and age
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