From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Voice of Global South Summit
Mains level : NA
- Prime Minister will inaugurate the second Voice of Global South Summit. This will be the second Voice of Global South Summit in less than a year hosted by India.
What is the Voice of Global South Summit?
- The VoGS Summit is a Indian initiative that has been designed to provide a common platform for the countries of the Global South to share their perspectives and priorities on several major issues.
- It aims to find out solutions for common challenges faced by developing countries through talks.
- Inspired by PM’s vision, ‘Sabka Saath Sabka Vikas Sabka Vishwas aur Sabka Prayas’, the summit follows India’s philosophy of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam.
How did the summit start?
- The foundation of this unique initiative was laid considering the recent global developments that have severely impacted the developing world.
- These include events such as Covid pandemic, mounting debt, ongoing Ukraine conflict, and challenges of food, energy security and others.
- Often, the worries of developing countries do not gain adequate attention and space on the global stage.
- The relevant existing platforms have proven to be deficient in handling the challenges and concerns of the developing nations.
About Global South
- Global South refers to countries in Asia, Africa, and South America, while Global North includes countries like the US, Canada, Europe, Russia, Australia, and New Zealand.
- It’s a term used to categorize countries based on economic development and historical factors.
Features of Global South
- Mostly lower-income countries, often with colonial histories.
- Not strictly limited to the Southern Hemisphere; many are in the Northern Hemisphere.
- Used as a value-free alternative to “Third World.”
- Major countries like Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, and Mexico are part of the Global South.
Need for Classification
- Helps describe economic and geopolitical differences.
- Overcomes the limitations of East/West or First/Second/Third World classifications.
- Recognizes the shared history of colonization.
- Acknowledges the emergence of economically powerful South countries.
- India aims to represent the underrepresented Global South in international forums.
- Calls for reform in multilateral institutions like the UNSC, UN, and IMF.
- Emergent economies like India and China seek cooperation with other Global South countries.
- Challenges the dominance of the Global North in international affairs.
Criticism of Classification
- Some find the term too broad and vague.
- Questions about whether elites of the Global South aim to challenge global capitalist structures.
- Concerns about the neglect of Africa in the rise of Asia.
Significance of Global South
- India aims to unite Global South nations to address common concerns.
- Potential for technical and idea exchanges and cooperation in various areas.
- Highlighting shared concerns like energy security and sustainable development.
Challenges for Consolidation
- Debate over climate reparations and exclusion of India and China.
- Impact of the Russia-Ukraine War on Least Developed Countries.
- China’s increasing influence in the Global South through initiatives like the Belt and Road.
- India needs active engagement in regional politics within the Global South.
- Recognize differentiation within the Global South in terms of wealth, needs, and capabilities.