Foreign Policy Watch: India-United States

India’s 2+2 Ministerial Dialogues: Partnerships and Objectives


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : 2+2 Dialogues Format

Mains level : Read the attached story


Central Idea

  • Indian Defence Minister and External Affairs Minister recently hosted their US counterparts for the fifth annual 2+2 Ministerial Dialogue in New Delhi.

Understanding 2+2 Dialogues

  • Purpose: 2+2 dialogues involve the participation of high-level representatives, typically the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Defence, from two nations. This format aims to expand the scope of dialogue and collaboration between these countries.
  • Rationale: Such dialogues enable comprehensive discussions on strategic concerns, mutual sensitivities, and political factors. They facilitate a deeper understanding of each other’s geopolitical perspectives and contribute to the development of stronger, more integrated strategic relationships in an ever-changing global environment.

India’s 2+2 Partners

  • United States: The United States is India’s foremost and oldest partner in the 2+2 format. The inaugural 2+2 dialogue took place in September 2018 during the Trump Administration.
  • Australia: India engages in 2+2 meetings with Australia, further enhancing bilateral security and defence cooperation.
  • Japan: The 2+2 talks with Japan commenced in 2019, with the objective of bolstering strategic depth in security and defence cooperation.
  • United Kingdom: In October 2023, India initiated its first 2+2 dialogue with the United Kingdom, signifying the growing importance of this partnership.
  • Russia: India and Russia also engage in 2+2 dialogues, fostering a mutually beneficial understanding on various regional and international issues.

Significance of 2+2 Dialogues

  • Defence and Strategic Agreements: These dialogues have led to significant bilateral agreements and partnerships. India and the United States, for instance, have signed Troika Pacts like:
  1. Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA)
  2. Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA)
  3. Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA) for deep military cooperation.
  • Addressing Regional Concerns: In the face of common regional concerns, such as China’s increasing assertiveness, 2+2 dialogues have become vital mechanisms for India and its partners to align their strategic interests. This includes cooperation within the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD) forum with Japan, Australia, and the United States.
  • Expanding Traditional Alliances: India also values its 2+2 dialogues with Russia, acknowledging shared worldviews and goals in promoting a multipolar world order.


  • India’s participation in 2+2 Ministerial Dialogues with key global partners underscores its commitment to fostering robust and multifaceted strategic relationships.
  • These dialogues are pivotal in addressing regional and global challenges, strengthening military cooperation, and promoting shared interests in a dynamic world order.

Get an IAS/IPS ranker as your 1: 1 personal mentor for UPSC 2024

Attend Now

Notify of
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments


Join us across Social Media platforms.

💥💥Smash Ethics by AIR 48, Ethics Topper 133 marks.
This is default text for notification bar