From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Kunming Declaration, CBD
Mains level : Not Much
The Kunming Declaration was adopted by over 100 countries at the first part of the ongoing virtual 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity.
- It calls upon the parties to “mainstream” biodiversity protection in decision-making and recognise the importance of conservation in protecting human health.
- The theme of the declaration is Ecological Civilization: Building a Shared Future for All Life on Earth.
- By adopting this, the nations have committed themselves to support the development, adoption and implementation of an effective post-2020 implementation plan for the Cartagena Protocol on biosafety.
- Signatory nations will ensure that the post-pandemic recovery policies, programs and plans contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.
About Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
- The CBD (wef 1993) known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is a multilateral treaty.
- The convention has three main goals:
- the conservation of biodiversity
- the sustainable use of its components
- the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources
- Its objective is to develop national strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, and it is often seen as the key document regarding sustainable development.
- It has two supplementary agreements, the Cartagena Protocol and Nagoya Protocol.
(1) Cartagena Protocol
- It is an international treaty governing the movements of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology from one country to another.
(2) Nagoya Protocol
- It deals with Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization (ABS).