Modern Indian History-Events and Personalities

Mughal Gardens will now be called as Amrit Udyan


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Mughal Garden/ Amrit Udyan

Mains level: Charbagh gardening style


The Rashtrapati Bhavan gardens — popularly known as the Mughal Gardens was renamed as Amrit Udyan.

The Amrit Udyan

  • Edwin Lutyens had finalized the designs of the Mughal Gardens in 1917, but it was only during the year 1928-1929 that planting was done.
  • It is spread across 15 acres and it incorporates both Mughal and English landscaping styles.
  • The main garden has two channels intersecting at right angles dividing the garden into a grid of squares- a Charbagh (a four-cornered garden)- a typical characteristic of Mughal landscaping.
  • There are six lotus-shaped fountains at the crossings of these channels rising to a height of 12 feet.
  • The gardens house nearly 2500 varieties of Dahlias and 120 varieties of roses.

Why was it earlier named as Mughal Gardens?

  • The garden is designed in Persian style of landscaping or what we call as ‘‘Mughal Gardens”.
  • In fact, Edward Lutyens who designed the Viceroy’s House, what we call today as Rashtrapati Bhavan had deliberately used Mughal architectural details as part of the British appeasement plan.
  • We see Chajja (dripstone), the Chattri (domed kiosk), the Jali (pierced screen) and many other Indian architectural features liberally used there.
  • Mughal canals, terraces and flowering shrubs are beautifully blended with European flowerbeds, lawns and private hedges.

Back2Basics: Mughal Gardening in India- The Charbagh Style


  • The Mughals were known to appreciate gardens. In Babur Nama, Babur says that his favourite kind of garden is the Persian charbagh style (literally, four quadrants garden).
  • The charbagh structure was intended to create a representation of an earthly utopia‘jannat’ – in which humans co-exist in perfect harmony with all elements of nature.
  • Defined by its rectilinear layouts, divided in four equal sections, these gardens can be found across lands previously ruled by the Mughals.
  • From the gardens surrounding Humanyun’s Tomb in Delhi to the Nishat Bagh in Srinagar, all are built in this style – giving them the moniker of Mughal Gardens.
  • A defining feature of these gardens is the use of waterways, often to demarcate the various quadrants of the garden.
  • Fountains were often built, symbolising the “cycle of life.”


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