From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : MCAP
Mains level : Climate vulnerability preparedness of coastal cities
The Mumbai Climate Action Plan (MCAP) has laid down a 30-year road map for the city to tackle the challenges of climate change by adopting inclusive and robust mitigation and adaptation strategies.
What is MCAP ?
- The MCAP has set short-, medium- and long-term climate goals aimed towards zero emission of greenhouse gas or a net-zero target for 2050.
- It focuses on priority across six strategic areas:
- Sustainable waste management
- Urban greening and biodiversity
- Urban flooding and water resource management,
- Energy and buildings
- Air quality and
- Sustainable mobility
Features of the plan
- The Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) prepared the plan with technical support from the World Resources Institute (WRI), India and the C40 Cities network.
- It concentrates on the city, its ecological, cultural and economical landscapes.
- The plan throws light on the current climate of the city called Baseline Assessment—climate and air pollution risks, greenhouse gas inventory.
- The plan then assesses future trajectories in the business-as-usual scenarios and assesses future emission reduction scenarios to make Mumbai net-zero by 2050.
Why does Mumbai need a climate action plan?
- As per a study conducted by WRI India on Mumbai’s vulnerability assessment, the city will face two major challenges—temperature rise, and extreme rain events which lead to flooding.
- The city is already witnessing a warming trend.
- The analysis has revealed a warming trend over 47 years (1973-2020) with an increase of 0.25°C per decade for the city.
What is the current greenhouse gas emission?
- In 2019, which is taken as a base year, Mumbai’s GHG emissions were 23.42 million tonnes of carbon dioxide emission, which is 1.8 tonnes CO2e per person.
- Out of which, 16.9 million tonnes or 72 per cent is from the energy sector, followed by 4.56 million tonnes of CO2 e or 20 per cent from the transportation sector.
- The city’s waste sector contributes to a total of eight per cent of the total emissions.
- Most of the city’s emissions come from energy use in residential buildings followed by commercial buildings and transport.
- Electricity consumption contributes significantly to total emissions (64.3%), due to the city’s predominantly coal-based grid.