Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Mumbai Climate Action Plan


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : MCAP

Mains level : Climate vulnerability preparedness of coastal cities

The Mumbai Climate Action Plan (MCAP) has laid down a 30-year road map for the city to tackle the challenges of climate change by adopting inclusive and robust mitigation and adaptation strategies.

What is MCAP ?

  • The MCAP has set short-, medium- and long-term climate goals aimed towards zero emission of greenhouse gas or a net-zero target for 2050.
  • It focuses on priority across six strategic areas:
  1. Sustainable waste management
  2. Urban greening and biodiversity
  3. Urban flooding and water resource management,
  4. Energy and buildings
  5. Air quality and
  6. Sustainable mobility

Features of the plan

  • The Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) prepared the plan with technical support from the World Resources Institute (WRI), India and the C40 Cities network.
  • It concentrates on the city, its ecological, cultural and economical landscapes.
  • The plan throws light on the current climate of the city called Baseline Assessment—climate and air pollution risks, greenhouse gas inventory.
  • The plan then assesses future trajectories in the business-as-usual scenarios and assesses future emission reduction scenarios to make Mumbai net-zero by 2050.

Why does Mumbai need a climate action plan?

  • As per a study conducted by WRI India on Mumbai’s vulnerability assessment, the city will face two major challenges—temperature rise, and extreme rain events which lead to flooding.
  • The city is already witnessing a warming trend.
  • The analysis has revealed a warming trend over 47 years (1973-2020) with an increase of 0.25°C per decade for the city.

What is the current greenhouse gas emission?

  • In 2019, which is taken as a base year, Mumbai’s GHG emissions were 23.42 million tonnes of carbon dioxide emission, which is 1.8 tonnes CO2e per person.
  • Out of which, 16.9 million tonnes or 72 per cent is from the energy sector, followed by 4.56 million tonnes of CO2 e or 20 per cent from the transportation sector.
  • The city’s waste sector contributes to a total of eight per cent of the total emissions.
  • Most of the city’s emissions come from energy use in residential buildings followed by commercial buildings and transport.
  • Electricity consumption contributes significantly to total emissions (64.3%), due to the city’s predominantly coal-based grid.


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