Urban Transformation – Smart Cities, AMRUT, etc.

Nazool Land: Behind the Violence in Haldwani


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Nazool Land, Laws governing it

Mains level : Issues with anti-encroachment drives



  • Violence erupted in Uttarakhand’s Haldwani district after the administration conducted a demolition drive at the site allegedly on Nazool Land.

What is Nazool Land?

  • Definition: Nazool land refers to government-owned land that is often leased out to entities for specific purposes, rather than being directly administered as state property.
  • Lease Terms: Entities leasing Nazool land typically hold it for a fixed period, ranging from 15 to 99 years, with the option to renew the lease upon expiration.

Historical Context  

  • Origins: Nazool land emerged during British rule in India when lands confiscated from opposing kings and kingdoms were designated as state property.
  • Post-Independence: After Independence, these lands were transferred to the respective state governments due to a lack of proper documentation to prove prior ownership by the former royal families.

Governance of Nazool Land

  • Legal Framework: While various states have implemented government orders to regulate Nazool land, the Nazool Lands (Transfer) Rules, 1956, are frequently utilized for adjudication.
  • Lease Renewal Process: The renewal or cancellation of leases for Nazool land is typically managed by the Revenue Department of the local development authority.

Utilization of Nazool Land

  • Public Purposes: Nazool land is commonly used by the government for public infrastructure projects such as schools, hospitals, and Gram Panchayat buildings.
  • Housing Societies: In urban areas, Nazool land is often leased out for housing societies and other residential developments.

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