[pib] Good Governance Index 2021


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : GGI

Mains level : Not Much

The Centre has released the Good Governance Index 2021 prepared by DARPG (Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances) on Good Governance Day.

Try this question from CS Mains 2016:


Q. What do you understand by the terms ‘governance’, ‘good governance’ and ‘ethical governance’?

What do you mean by Good Governance?

  • It is the process of measuring how public institution conduct public affairs and manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and with due regard for the rule of law.

12 Principles of Good Governance:

  1. Participation, Representation, Fair Conduct of Elections
  2. Responsiveness
  3. Efficiency and Effectiveness
  4. Openness and Transparency
  5. Rule of Law
  6. Ethical Conduct
  7. Competence and Capacity
  8. Innovation and Openness to Change
  9. Sustainability and Long-term Orientation
  10. Sound Financial Management
  11. Human rights, Cultural Diversity and Social Cohesion
  12. Accountability

About Good Governance Index (GGI)

  • The GGI is a uniform tool across States to assess the Status of Governance and the impact of various interventions taken up by the State Government and UTs.
  • The objectives are:
  1. To provide quantifiable data to compare the state of governance in all states and UTs, enable states and UTs
  2. To formulate and implement suitable strategies for improving governance and shift to result-oriented approaches and administration

Components of GGI

  • GGI 2021 Framework covered ten sectors and 58 indicators.
  • These ten Governance Sectors are measured on total 50 indicators:
  1. Agriculture and Allied Sectors
  2. Commerce & Industries
  3. Human Resource Development
  4. Public Health
  5. Public Infrastructure & Utilities
  6. Economic Governance
  7. Social Welfare & Development
  8. Judicial & Public Security
  9. Environment
  10. Citizen-Centric Governance

Categorization of States and UTs

The GGI 2020-21 categorizes States and UTs into four categories, i.e.

  1. Other States – Group A
  2. Other States – Group B
  3. North-East and Hill States and
  4. Union Territories

Top performers in 2021

  • Gujarat, Maharashtra and Goa top the composite rank score covering 10 sectors.
  • GGI 2021 says that Gujarat registered 12.3 percent increase and Goa registered 24.7 percent increase over GGI 2019 indicators.
  • Rajasthan has topped the Other States (Group B) category in Judiciary and Public Safety, Environment & Citizen Centric Governance.
  • GGI 2021 says that in the North-East and Hill States category, Mizoram and Jammu and Kashmir have registered an overall increase of 10.4% and 3.7% respectively over GGI 2019.
  • In the UTs category, Delhi tops the composite rank registering a 14 percent increase over the GGI 2019 indicators.


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