Health Sector – UHC, National Health Policy, Family Planning, Health Insurance, etc.

[pib] May 5: World Pulmonary Hypertension Day 


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Pulmonary Hypertension, 75-25 Initiative

Mains level: NA

Why in the news?

Every year on May 5, pulmonary hypertension organizations and groups around the world participate in World Pulmonary Hypertension Day.

What is Pulmonary Hypertension?

  • Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a condition characterized by high blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries, which are the blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the lungs.
  • This elevated pressure in the pulmonary arteries can lead to various symptoms and complications, affecting the heart’s ability to pump blood effectively to the lungs and the rest of the body.

Here are some key aspects of pulmonary hypertension:


  1. Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (IPAH): In many cases, the exact cause of pulmonary hypertension is unknown, and it is referred to as idiopathic. IPAH is a subtype of PH without an identifiable cause.
  2. Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension: PH can also develop secondary to other underlying conditions, including:
    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    • Interstitial lung disease
    • Sleep apnea
    • Connective tissue diseases such as scleroderma and lupus
    • Congenital heart diseases
    • HIV infection
    • Liver disease (cirrhosis)
  3. Genetic Factors: Some forms of PH may have a genetic component, with mutations in certain genes predisposing individuals to the condition.


  • Symptoms: Symptoms of pulmonary hypertension may include:
      • Shortness of breath, especially during physical activity
      • Fatigue
      • Chest pain or pressure
      • Dizziness or fainting spells
      • Swelling in the ankles and legs (edema)
      • Bluish lips or skin (cyanosis)
  • Diagnostic Tests: Diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension typically involves a combination of medical history review, physical examination, and diagnostic tests, including:
      • Echocardiogram (ECG)
      • Right heart catheterization
      • Pulmonary function tests
      • Chest X-ray
      • CT scan or MRI of the chest
      • Blood tests
  • Treatment: Treatment for pulmonary hypertension aims to relieve symptoms, improve quality of life, and slow disease progression. Treatment options may include:
    • Medications such as vasodilators, endothelin receptor antagonists, and prostacyclin analogs
    • Oxygen therapy
    • Pulmonary rehabilitation
    • Surgery or a lung transplant in severe cases

Hypertension Control Initiatives in India:

  • India Hypertension Control Initiative (IHCI) (2017): It was launched to strengthen the hypertension component of National Programme for Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases (NP-NCD) in primary care public sector facilities in India
  • 75/25 initiative (2023): Union Health Ministry announced the initiative- 75 million people with hypertension and diabetes to be put on Standard Care by 2025, through the Primary Health Centres (PHCs).



[2021] In the context of hereditary diseases, consider the following statements :​

1. Passing on mitochondrial diseases from parent to child can be prevented by mitochondrial replacement therapy either before or after in vitro fertilization of egg.​

2. A child inherits mitochondrial diseases entirely from mother and not from father.​

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

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