Oil and Gas Sector – HELP, Open Acreage Policy, etc.

[pib] National Green Hydrogen Mission


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: National Green Hydrogen Mission

Mains level: NA

Why in the news?

  • The Ministry of New & Renewable Energy has unveiled Guidelines for the implementation of an R&D Scheme under the National Green Hydrogen Mission.
  • The scheme aims to catalyze advancements in the production, storage, transportation, and utilization of green hydrogen, with a focus on affordability, efficiency, safety, and reliability.

Hydrogen Energy: A Backgrounder

  • Hydrogen is an important source of energy since it has zero carbon content and is a non-polluting source of energy in contrast to hydrocarbons that have net carbon content in the range of 75–85 per cent.
  • Hydrogen energy is expected to reduce carbon emissions that are set to jump by 1.5 billion tons in 2021.
  • It has the highest energy content by weight and lowest energy content by volume.
  • As per International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Hydrogen shall make up 6 per cent of total energy consumption by 2050.
  • Hydrogen energy is currently at a nascent stage of development, but has considerable potential for aiding the process of energy transition from hydrocarbons to renewable.

About National Green Hydrogen Mission (NGHM)

  • The National Green Hydrogen Mission was launched in January 2023 to make India a ‘global hub’ for using, producing and exporting green hydrogen.
  • Earlier, the National Hydrogen Mission was launched on August 15, 2021, with a view to cutting down carbon emissions and increasing the use of renewable sources of energy.
  • The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) formulates the scheme guidelines for implementation of these missions.

Key features of the NGHM

  • Power capacity: The mission seeks to promote the development of green hydrogen production capacity of at least 5 MMT per annum with an associated renewable energy capacity addition of about 125 GW in the country by 2030.
  • Job creation: It envisages an investment of over ₹8 lakh crore and creation of over 6 lakh jobs by 2030.
  • Reducing energy import bill: It will also result in a cumulative reduction in fossil fuel imports of over ₹1 lakh crore and abatement of nearly 50 MMT of annual greenhouse gas emissions by 2030.
  • Export promotion: The mission will facilitate demand creation, production, utilisation and export of green hydrogen.
  • Incentivization: Under the Strategic Interventions for Green Hydrogen Transition Programme (SIGHT), two distinct financial incentive mechanisms targeting domestic manufacturing of electrolysers and production of green hydrogen will be provided under the mission.
  • Green Hydrogen Hubs: Regions capable of supporting large-scale production and/or utilisation of hydrogen will be identified and developed as Green Hydrogen Hubs.

Types of Hydrogen

Hydrogen extraction methods are classified into three types based on their processes: Grey, Blue, and Green.

  1. Green Hydrogen: Green hydrogen is produced through water electrolysis, utilizing electricity generated from renewable energy sources.
  2. Grey Hydrogen: This type of hydrogen is obtained through coal or lignite gasification (black or brown), or by steam methane reformation (SMR) of natural gas or methane (grey). These processes are typically carbon-intensive.
  3. Blue Hydrogen: Blue hydrogen is derived from natural gas or coal gasification, coupled with carbon capture storage (CCS) or carbon capture use (CCU) technologies to mitigate carbon emissions.



[2010]Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles produce one of the following as “exhaust”:

(a) NH3

(b) CH4

(c) H2O

(d) H2O2


[2023]With reference to green hydrogen, consider the following statements:

1. It can be used directly as a fuel for internal combustion.

2. It can be blended with natural gas and used as fuel for heat or power generation.

3. It can be used in the hydrogen fuel cell to run vehicles.

How many of the above statements are correct?

(a) Only one

(b) Only two

(c) All three

(d) None


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