Agricultural Sector and Marketing Reforms – eNAM, Model APMC Act, Eco Survey Reco, etc.

[pib] Release of Statistical Report on Value of Output from Agriculture and Allied Sectors, 2024


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Key stats mentioned in the newscard; National Statistical Office (NSO)

Why in the News?

The National Statistical Office (NSO), under the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI), has released the ‘Statistical Report on Value of Output from Agriculture and Allied Sectors 2024’.

Data Collection Strategies by NSO:

  • Crops are divided into 12 groups: Cereals, pulses, oilseeds, sugars, fibres, indigo, dyes and tanning material, drugs and narcotics, condiments & spices, fruits & vegetables, other crops, by-products, and kitchen garden.
  • Livestock products are divided into 7 groups: milk, meat, eggs, wool and hair, dung, silk worm cocoons & honey, and increment in livestock.

About the National Statistical Office (NSO)

    • The NSO was established in 1950 as the Central Statistical Office (CSO) under the Ministry of Planning.
    • It was later renamed the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) in 1970 and subsequently became the NSO in 2019.
    • Over the years, it has evolved to become the primary statistical agency in India.
  • Organizational Structure:  The NSO consists of several divisions and units responsible for different statistical functions.

Key organizations under NSO: Central Statistical Office (CSO)

  • The CSO is a part of the NSO and focuses on macroeconomic statistics and national income accounting.
  • It is responsible for producing key economic indicators such as the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Index of Industrial Production (IIP), Consumer Price Index (CPI), and Wholesale Price Index (WPI).

Key Reports released by NSO:

  • Household Consumption Expenditure Survey
  • EnviStats India 2024: Environment Statistics
  • Energy Statistics India 2024
  • National Accounts Statistics 2024
  • Quarterly Estimates of GDP

Sector-wise share of Value of Output

Salient Features and Summary Results

  • India’s Agricultural Rankings: India ranks second worldwide in arable land, third in cereal production, and is a leading producer of groundnut, fruits, vegetables, sugarcane, tea, and jute. It is also the largest producer of milk, second in egg production, and fifth in meat production.
  • GVA Contribution: The shares of Crop, Livestock, Forestry and Fishing sub-sectors in value of output of Agriculture and allied sector were 54.3%, 30.9%, 7.9% and 6.9% respectively in 2022-23.
  • Crop Sub-sector Trends: The crop sub-sector remains the largest contributor to the Gross Value of Output (GVO) but has seen its share decline from 62.4% in 2011-12 to 54.3% in 2022-23. Fruits and vegetables’ output has significantly increased, highlighting the growing importance of horticulture.
  • Livestock Sub-sector Growth: The livestock sub-sector has seen an increase in the output of milk, meat, and eggs, indicating a steady growth in this area.
  • Forestry and Fishing: The forestry sector has diversified its output sources, and the fishing and aquaculture sector has seen significant growth, especially in Andhra Pradesh.

State-wise Details from 2011-12 to 2022-23

State-wise Value of Output of Crop

  • Highest Output: Uttar Pradesh leading in cereals and sugarcane production.
  • Lowest Output: Lakshadweep:

State-wise Value of Output of Livestock

  • Highest Output:
    • Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan together accounted for about a quarter of the livestock sub-sector’s output.
  • Lowest Output:
    • Goa: Output remained at ₹0 lakh throughout the period.
  • Key Trends:
    • Madhya Pradesh: Significant increase in livestock output, particularly in milk and meat production.
    • West Bengal: Steady growth in egg production.

State-wise Value of Output of Forestry and Logging

Major products: Industrial wood (68%), Fuelwood (20%), and Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFP) (12%) in 2022-23.

  • Top States in 2022-23:Maharashtra: 16.4% share, Rajasthan: 10.6% share,Uttar Pradesh: 8.7% share, Madhya Pradesh: 7.7% share and Odisha: 5.3% share.

State-wise Value of Output of Fishing and Aquaculture

  • Highest Output: Andhra Pradesh: Share increased from 17.7% in 2011-12 to almost 40.9% in 2022-23, leading in fish and prawn farming.
  • Lowest Output: Arunachal Pradesh: Output increased from ₹0 lakh (2011-12) to ₹3 lakh (2022-23).

All India Item-wise Value of Output from Agriculture, Livestock, Forestry, and Fishing

  • Cereals: Paddy and wheat are the top contributors to the cereals sub-sector. Paddy output in 2022-23 was ₹220,200 crore, while wheat output was ₹137,300 crore.
  • Pulses: Gram and Arhar together accounted for nearly 59% of the pulses output. Madhya Pradesh led in pulses production with a 22% share in 2022-23.
  • Oilseeds: Groundnut and Rapeseed & Mustard are the highest contributors within the oilseeds group. Gujarat and Rajasthan are the leading states in oilseeds production.
  • Sugar Crops: Uttar Pradesh remains the largest producer of sugarcane, increasing its share from 41% in 2011-12 to 54.5% in 2022-23.
  • Livestock Products: Milk, meat, and eggs are the major contributors within the livestock sub-sector. The share of milk, meat, and eggs in the livestock sub-sector was 66.5%, 23.6%, and 3.7% respectively in 2022-23.
  • Forestry Products: The forestry sector’s output is mainly driven by industrial wood, fuelwood, and NTFP. The share of industrial wood increased to 68% in 2022-23.
  • Fishing and Aquaculture: The fishing and aquaculture sector has seen a significant increase in output, with Andhra Pradesh leading the production. The output of fishing and aquaculture increased from ₹80 thousand crore in 2011-12 to ₹195 thousand crore in 2022-23.


[2011] A state in India has the following characteristics:

  1. Its northern part is arid and semiarid.
  2. Its central part produces cotton.
  3. Cultivation of cash crops is predominant over food crops.

Which one of the following states has all of the above characteristics?

(a) Andhra Pradesh

(b) Gujarat

(c) Karnataka

(d) Tamil Nadu

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