Oil and Gas Sector – HELP, Open Acreage Policy, etc.

[pib] XP100: The premium grade Petrol

Note4Students

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Octane number

Mains level : India's oil sector

The Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas has launched world-class premium-grade Petrol (with Octane number 100) in the country.

What is XP100?

  • It is petrol developed by Indian Oil with octane number 100.
  • The availability of XP100 puts India in an elite group of countries, having access to such high-quality oil. It will provide high quality and power to the engine.
  • It will be rolled out in 15 identified cities across the country in two phases.
  • Worldwide, 100 Octane petrol has a niche market for luxury vehicles that demand high performance and is available only in six countries like Germany, USA, etc.

Try this PYQ:

Q.Lead, ingested or inhaled, is a health hazard. After the addition of lead to petrol has been banned, what still are the sources of lead poisoning?

  1. Smelting units
  2. Pens pencils
  3. Paints
  4. Hair oils and cosmetics

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1, 2 and 3 only

(b) 1 and 3 only

(c) 2 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

What is Octane numbering of Petrol?

  • Octane number, also called Antiknock Rating, a measure of the ability of a fuel to resist knocking when ignited in a mixture with air in the cylinder of an internal-combustion engine.
  • Engine knock is a tapping, pinging sound that gets louder and more obnoxious as we accelerate.
  • The octane number is determined by comparing, under standard conditions, the knock intensity of the fuel with that of blends of two reference fuels: iso-octane, which resists knocking, and heptane, which knocks readily.
  • The octane number is the percentage by volume of iso-octane in the iso-octane–heptane mixture that matches the fuel being tested in a standard test engine.
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