From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : World Heritage Irrigation Structure (WHIS)
Mains level : Old irrigation systems in India
Four sites in India have received the World Heritage Irrigation Structure (WHIS) tag this year.
Try this PYQ:
Q.The FAO accords the status of ‘Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS)’ to traditional agricultural systems. What is the overall goal of this initiative?
- To provide modern technology, training in modern farming methods and financial support to local communities of identified GIAHS so as to greatly enhance their agricultural productivity.
- To identify and safeguard eco-friendly traditional farm practices and their associated landscapes, agricultural biodiversity and knowledge systems of the local communities.
- To provide Geographical Indication status to all the varieties of agricultural produce in such identified GIAHS.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
World Heritage Irrigation Structure (WHIS)
- The International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID) annually recognizes irrigation structures of international significance like UNESCO’s World Heritage Sites.
- The recognition is aimed at recognizing and tracing the history of and understanding the evolution of irrigation in civilizations across the world.
- It also aims at understanding the philosophy and wisdom on sustainable irrigation from these structures and to preserve them for posterity.
Criteria for consideration
- Major criteria for WHIS entail that a structure should be more than 100 years old, should be functional, achieving food security and have archival value.
- Each site is evaluated based on its merits first by the state government.
- The proposal is then sent to the Centre and a team from CWC carries out an on-ground survey to verify details.
Which are the Indian sites?
- The sites are Cumbum Tank, Kurnool-Cuddapah Canal, Porumamilla Tank (Anantharaja Sagaram) in Andhra Pradesh and 490-year-old Dhamapur Lake in Maharashtra’s Sindhudurg district.
- In 2018, Pedda Cheru Tank in Kamareddy district and Sadarmat Anicut in Nirmal district, both in Telangana, were named as WHIS sites.
- The rest include Tianbao Weir in China at number one followed by Longshou Canal and ancient Luohe river irrigation district, China.
- It also includes Zarch and Moon Qanat both in Iran and Tenguiwa, Bizenkyo and Jyosai Gokuchi irrigation systems in Japan with Goseong Dumbeong in the Republic of Korea.
- The ICID, established in 1950 is a leading scientific, technical, international not-for-profit, non-governmental organization.
- It is a professional network of experts from across the world in the field of irrigation, drainage, and flood management.
- The main mission is to promote ‘Sustainable agriculture water management’ to achieve ‘Water secure world free of poverty and hunger through sustainable rural development’.
- ICID mission covers the entire spectrum of agricultural water management practices ranging from rainfed agriculture to supplemental irrigation, land drainage, deficit irrigation to full irrigation, etc.