Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

Redouble efforts to reduce disaster risks


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : NA

Mains level : Climate crisis, Frequent and severe extreme weather events and Solutions

What’s the news?

  • In 2023, the rise in disasters is not an anomaly; it’s a disturbing trend. Headlines have been dominated by a relentless wave of bad news: severe flooding in China, devastating wildfires in Europe and Hawaii, and July marking the hottest month ever recorded.

Central idea

  • The world is standing at a precarious crossroads, where the challenges we face are multiplying faster than our ability to mitigate them. The aftershocks of the COVID-19 pandemic, combined with a complex web of crises encompassing war, debt, and food insecurity, have placed our collective resilience to the test. All of this unfolds against the ever-looming backdrop of the climate crisis, which drives increasingly frequent and severe extreme weather events.

Disproportionate Impact on Vulnerable Communities

  • Debt crisis: A majority of the 50 countries most vulnerable to climate change also grapple with severe debt issues. India, already one of the world’s most disaster-prone countries, is acutely experiencing this new reality.
  • Extreme weather events: In 2022, disasters or extreme weather events battered the country nearly every day, with this year’s severe monsoon causing widespread loss of livelihoods and lives.

Solutions Within Reach

  • SDG: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) continue to serve as our most comprehensive blueprint for achieving peace and prosperity.
  • Paris Agreement: Additionally, commitments made in the Paris Agreement to limit global warming to 1.5°C offer a clear path forward.
  • Sendai Framework: The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction provides a global framework to reduce disaster risks, although progress in its implementation has been slow.
  • Accelerating Resilience Building: One valuable lesson we have learned from the COVID-19 pandemic is the importance of systemic disaster risk reduction, resilience, and adaptation. The crisis has not only exposed our vulnerability to risks but has also catalyzed innovative approaches, such as digital technologies and modeling. India’s proactive efforts in disaster risk reduction, including state-level disaster management plans and early warning systems, have demonstrated tangible results in reducing mortality from extreme weather events.
  • Financial Reforms for Disaster Preparedness: India’s 15th Finance Commission has introduced significant reforms for disaster risk financing, allocating substantial resources for preparedness, response, recovery, and capacity development. On the international stage, India is championing disaster resilience and sustainability through initiatives like the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure and the deployment of its National Disaster Response Force.

The Transformations We Need

  • Early detection system: Disaster risk reduction must be integrated at all levels of our societies. This includes how we build, invest, and live. One highly cost-effective method is the establishment of early warning systems for all, with India’s support for this endeavor being noteworthy. Such systems can significantly reduce the damage caused by impending disasters. However, it is crucial to recognize that over a third of the world’s population, primarily in the least developed countries and Small Island Developing States, lacks access to these life-saving systems.
  • The Path to a Global Multi-Risk Warning System: Our ultimate goal should be a global multi-risk warning system that covers all types of hazards, be they biological, tectonic, or technological. Improving global data capabilities is essential for better prediction and response to the risks we face. India’s leadership in knowledge sharing, joint data infrastructure, and risk analysis through its G-20 presidency deserves commendation.
  • Leaving No One Behind: We must strengthen international cooperation in disaster prevention, response, and recovery, particularly for countries in the Global South. No one should be left behind in our collective efforts to mitigate the impacts of disasters.


  • The recent G-20 summit and the outcomes of the Disaster Risk Reduction Working Group offer a unique opportunity to shape a future where we are equipped to withstand disaster risk. As UN Secretary-General António Guterres wisely noted, Extreme weather events will happen. But they do not need to become deadly disasters. Together, through decisive action and unwavering commitment, we can forge a more resilient and sustainable world for generations to come.


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