From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Mission Indradhanush
Mains level : Read the attached story
The number of children in India who were unvaccinated or missed their first dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) combined vaccine doubled due to the pandemic, rising from 1.4 million in 2019 to 2.7 million in 2021, according to official data published by the WHO and UNICEF.
Why in news?
- This data signifies that the world recorded the largest sustained decline in childhood vaccinations in approximately 30 years.
- There was an increase in zero dose.
- This is the first time ever there has been a decline in evaluated coverage in immunisation for India as a whole.
Vaccination measures in India
- Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) 4.0: India started IMI 4.0 from February 2022, which is expected to further reduce the number of unvaccinated children.
- India’s Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP): It provide free vaccines to all children across the country to protect them against Tuberculosis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio, Hepatitis B, Pneumonia and Meningitis due to Haemophilus Influenzae type b (Hib), Measles, Rubella, Japanese Encephalitis (JE) and Rotavirus diarrhoea. (Rubella, JE and Rotavirus vaccine in select states and districts).
About Intensified Mission Indhradhanush (IMI) 4.0
- IMI 4.0 aims to fill gaps in the routine immunisation coverage of infants and pregnant women hit by the Covid-19 pandemic and also aims to make lasting gains towards Universal Immunization.
- It will have three rounds and will be conducted in 416 districts across 33 states.
- Unlike the past, each round under IMI 4.0 will be conducted for seven days, including Routine Immunization (RI) days, Sundays, and public holidays.
Mission Indradhanush (MI)
Back2Basics: Universal Immunisation Programme
- The Expanded Programme on Immunization was launched in 1978.
- It was renamed as UIP in 1985 when its reach was expanded beyond urban areas.
- UIP is one of the largest public health programmes targeting close to 2.67 crore newborns and 2.9 crore pregnant women annually.
- Under UIP, Immunization is provided free of cost against 12 vaccine-preventable diseases.
- The two major milestones of UIP have been the elimination of polio in 2014 and maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination in 2015.
- To speed up the coverage, Mission Indradhanush was planned and implemented to rapidly increase the full coverage to 90%.