Mother and Child Health – Immunization Program, BPBB, PMJSY, PMMSY, etc.

The impact of 50 years of vaccination on children worldwide 


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: About Measles Vaccination

Mains level: Global Immunisation Efforts and Current Observations

Why in the News?

On the occasion of World Immunisation Week observed from 24th to 30th April, the Indian Academy of Paediatrics has launched a campaign to focus on routine immunization as the ‘Birth Right’ of a Child.

About Measles Vaccination

  • This vaccine protects against 3 diseases: Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR).
  • Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends children get two doses of MMR vaccine, starting with the first dose at 12 -15 months of age, and the second dose at 4-6 years of age. Teens and adults should also be up to date on their MMR vaccination.

Indian Government Initiatives:

  • World Immunization Week: The Indian Academy of Paediatrics (IAP) launched a campaign during World Immunisation Week (April 24-30) focusing on routine immunization as a fundamental right of every child. IAP urged the government to expedite the introduction of the HPV vaccine and typhoid conjugate vaccine to address significant public health burdens.
  • Vaccination made within the country:
    • DTP Vaccine: 93% of surviving infants received the third dose of the DTP vaccine.
    • Measles Vaccine: 90% of infants received the second dose of the measles vaccine. The measles vaccine has been the most significant in reducing infant mortality, accounting for 60% of lives saved through immunisation since 1974.
    • Present issues include inequitable distribution of vaccines, inability to reach 90% coverage, human resource gaps, and financing problems. In 2022, 33 million children missed a measles vaccine dose, with 22 million missing the first dose and 11 million missing the second dose.

Impacts of Immunisation Globally:

  • Lives Saved: Immunisation efforts have saved an estimated 154 million lives globally over the past 50 years, equating to six lives every minute of every year.
  • Infant Mortality Reduction: 101 million of the lives saved were infants. Vaccination against 14 diseases has reduced infant deaths by 40% globally and by over 50% in Africa.
  • Diseases Targeted: Vaccines have contributed to reducing deaths from diseases like Diphtheria, Haemophilus Influenzae Type B, Hepatitis B, Japanese Encephalitis, Measles, Meningitis A, Pertussis, invasive Pneumococcal disease, Polio, Rotavirus, Rubella, Tetanus, Tuberculosis, and Yellow fever.

Conclusion: Immunisation saves lives, reduces infant mortality, and prevents outbreaks by protecting against infectious diseases, ensuring healthier communities, and securing a better future for children worldwide.

Mains PYQ:

Q What is the basic principle behind vaccine development? How do vaccines work? What approaches were adopted by the Indian vaccine manufacturers to produce COVID-19 vaccines? (UPSC IAS/2022)

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