Climate Change Impact on India and World – International Reports, Key Observations, etc.

The shape of a five-year climate agenda for India


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Initiative related to climate change

Mains level: Role of Federal Entities in Enhancing Climate Action

Why in the news? 

The new government’s climate actions will impact all sectors, shaping India’s sustainable economic path, global leadership, and fight for climate finance and justice.

Initiatives Taken by the Indian Government in the Last Decade and Their Significant Results

  • International Solar Alliance (ISA): Promotes the widespread adoption of solar energy, enhancing global cooperation in renewable energy.
  • Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI): Focuses on building resilient infrastructure to withstand climate-induced disasters.
  •  Net-Zero by 2070: India’s commitment to achieve net-zero emissions by 2070 marks a significant shift towards absolute emission reductions.
  • Enhanced Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs): Setting ambitious targets for reducing emissions intensity and increasing renewable energy capacity.
  • Indian Emissions Carbon Trading Scheme: Establishing a carbon trading system to incentivize emission reductions and support sustainable economic growth.
  • Significant Growth in Renewable Energy Capacity: Rapid expansion in solar and wind energy installations, contributing to India’s international non-fossil fuel energy targets.
  • Green Development Pact under G-20 Presidency: Integrating green development principles into global economic practices, showcasing India’s leadership in sustainable development.

How India can enhance it’s Global negotiations wrt Climate change? 

  • Hosting International Climate Summits: India should aim to host a major international climate summit like the United Nations Conference of Parties (COP) in 2028. This would provide a platform to showcase its climate leadership and set ambitious global climate agendas. Successful hosting, akin to its G-20 Presidency, would strengthen India’s influence in global climate policy.
  • Advocacy and Consensus Building: India should start early to build consensus on critical climate issues, such as ending new investments in oil and gas post-2030 and securing significant commitments for adaptation finance. Proactively engaging in dialogues, forming alliances, and addressing concerns of other nations will help India lead negotiations and drive meaningful outcomes.
  • Promoting Equity and Climate Finance: India should continue to emphasize equity in climate action and finance in international forums. Advocating for fair treatment of developing countries and pushing for enhanced climate finance mechanisms will strengthen India’s position as a leader of the Global South.

Role of Federal Entities in Enhancing Climate Action

  • Collaboration on Long-Term Climate Strategies: Federal entities can work with state governments to develop and implement long-term climate and energy models. Examples include supporting states like Tamil Nadu and Bihar in crafting their net-zero plans.
  • Enhanced Coordination and Policy Alignment: Forming a Centre-State coordination group can ensure better synchronization of climate actions across states. This group can facilitate regular communication and policy alignment while respecting the autonomy of each state.
  • Financial Incentives through the Sixteenth Finance Commission: Federal entities can use financial mechanisms like the Finance Commission to incentivize states for their climate initiatives. This can include grants or additional funding for states that demonstrate significant progress in climate action.
  • Integration of Scientific Capabilities in Policymaking: Encouraging states to incorporate scientific modelling and data analysis into their climate policies. Federal support can enhance the technical capabilities of states, ensuring data-driven and effective climate strategies.
  • Consistent and Accurate Climate Data Management: Developing a unified MRV architecture at the state level to standardize data collection and reporting. This system can help track progress, ensure accountability, and facilitate better policy adjustments based on reliable data.

The Indian government has taken several initiatives to address climate change, but their effectiveness is still being evaluated:

  • National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC): Launched in 2008, the NAPCC identified eight national missions to promote understanding of climate change, adaptation and mitigation, energy efficiency, and natural resource conservation. While these missions have led to some progress, such as the ambitious targets set under the National Solar Mission, their overall impact is still being assessed.
  • State Action Plans on Climate Change (SAPCCs): Under the NAPCC, states are required to develop their own action plans. As of 2022, 33 states and union territories have prepared their SAPCCs. However, the implementation and monitoring of these plans remain a challenge.
  • Climate change research and knowledge networks: The government has supported various research initiatives and knowledge networks to enhance understanding of climate change impacts and responses. These include the National Network Programmes on Climate Change Modelling, Aerosols, and Coastal Vulnerability. While these networks have generated valuable knowledge, their ability to inform policy and action is still being evaluated

Conclusion: India should expand its climate targets beyond the power sector to include other key areas such as transportation, industry, and agriculture. Clear and ambitious targets for zero-carbon two- and four-wheelers, as well as other sectors, will drive comprehensive decarbonization efforts.


Mains PYQ: 

Q Explain the purpose of the Green Grid Initiative launched at World Leaders Summit of the COP26 UN Climate Change Conference in Glasgow in November 2021. When was this idea first floated in the International Solar Alliance (ISA)? (UPSC IAS/2021)

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