Agricultural Sector and Marketing Reforms – eNAM, Model APMC Act, Eco Survey Reco, etc.

Tomato Crop affected by different Mosiac Viruses


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Mosaic Viruses

Mains level: NA

tomato mosiac

Central Idea

  • Tomato growers in Maharashtra and Karnataka have reported significant yield losses due to the impact of two different Mosiac Viruses.
  • The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has affected tomato crops in Maharashtra, while the tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) has been blamed for crop losses in Karnataka and other South Indian states.


Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV)

Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)

Target Plants Various plants, including cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, lettuce, and ornamentals Plants in the Solanaceae family, including tobacco, tomatoes, peppers, etc.
Transmission Aphids, seeds, mechanical contact, infected plant debris Direct contact, mechanical transmission, contaminated plant material
Symptoms Mosaic patterns, yellowing, stunted growth, leaf curling, distorted fruits or flowers Mosaic patterns, yellowing, leaf curling, stunted growth
Impact on Crops Reduced yield and quality Reduced yield, impact on flavor and quality
Longevity Not specified Long-term viability in dried plant debris, tobacco products, contaminated surfaces
Control Measures Vector control, seed selection, crop rotation Crop rotation, sanitation, virus-free seeds/seedlings, cultural practices
Curability No cure, management focuses on prevention No cure, management focuses on prevention


Impact on Tomato Crops

  • Symptoms of ToMV: Infected plants exhibit alternating yellowish and dark green areas, blisters on leaves, leaf distortion, twisting of younger leaves, necrotic spots on fruits, and reduced fruit setting.
  • Symptoms of CMV: Leaf distortion, with top and bottom leaves most affected, mosaic-like patterns of yellow and green spots in cucumber, fruit deformation, and reduced production in tomato.

Control Measures

  • ToMV: Ensuring biosafety standards in nurseries, seed treatment, careful inspection of saplings before planting, continuous monitoring for infection, and removal of infected plants are crucial.
  • CMV: Due to its wide host range, controlling aphids becomes essential. Measures include spraying quick-acting insecticides or mineral oils, monitoring aphid migration, and clearing fields of weeds and plant material that may harbor the virus.


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