From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Salmonella Typhi
Mains level : Not Much
The bacteria causing typhoid fever is becoming increasingly resistant to some of the most important antibiotics for human health.
What is the news?
- The largest genome analysis of Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) also shows that resistant strains — almost all originating in South Asia — have spread to other countries nearly 200 times since 1990.
- The researchers noted that typhoid fever is a global public health concern, causing 11 million infections and more than 1,00,000 deaths per year.
- Antibiotics can be used to successfully treat typhoid fever infections, but their effectiveness is threatened by the emergence of resistant S. Typhi strains.
What is Salmonella Typhi?
- Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) are bacteria that infect the intestinal tract and the blood.
- It is usually spread through contaminated food or water.
- Once S. Typhi bacteria are eaten or drunk, they multiply and spread into the bloodstream.
- The disease is referred to as typhoid fever. S. Paratyphi bacteria cause a similar, but milder illness, which comes under the same title.
- Paratyphoid has a shorter duration, generally, than typhoid.
- Typhi and S. Paratyphi are common in many developing countries where sewage and water treatment systems are poor.
How does it spread?
- Salmonella Typhi lives only in humans.
- Persons with typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract.
- Symptoms include prolonged high fever, fatigue, headache, nausea, abdominal pain, and constipation or diarrhoea.
- Some patients may have a rash. Severe cases may lead to serious complications or even death.
- Typhoid fever can be confirmed through blood testing.