Uniform Civil Code: Triple Talaq debate, Polygamy issue, etc.

Uniform Civil Code(UCC): Law Commission’s Intention to Gather Public Opinions


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Uniform Civil Code, Law commission

Mains level: 22nd Law Commission of India, Development over the Uniform Civil Code and recommendations by 21st Law Commission,


Central Idea

  • The 22nd Law Commission of India has recently announced its intention to gather public opinions and engage with recognized religious organizations regarding the Uniform Civil Code (UCC). This move comes as a result of the previous 21st Law Commission’s consultation paper on the Reform of Family Law, which stated that the formulation of a UCC is not necessary or desirable at the present stage.

All you need to know about Law Commission of India

  • Non-statutory body: The Law Commission of India is a non-statutory body and is constituted by a notification of the Government of India. It plays a crucial role in legal reforms and the development of the Indian legal system.
  • Establishment: The first Law Commission was established in 1955, and since then, there have been several subsequent commissions. The Law Commission operates under the Law Commission Act, 1956.
  • Composition: The Commission consists of a chairman, who is typically a retired judge of the Supreme Court of India or a retired Chief Justice of a High Court, and other members, including legal experts and scholars.
  • Role and Functions: The primary function of the Law Commission is to examine and review the existing laws of the country, suggest reforms, and make recommendations for new legislation. It also conducts research, studies, and consultations on various legal issues referred to it by the government.
  • Research and Reports: The Commission conducts in-depth research on legal matters, examines specific subjects, and prepares detailed reports with recommendations for legal reforms. These reports cover a wide range of topics, including civil and criminal laws, family laws, constitutional law, administrative law, and other legal areas.
  • Consultation with Stakeholders: The Law Commission seeks public opinion and engages with stakeholders, including government departments, judiciary, legal professionals, academic institutions, and civil society organizations, to gather diverse perspectives on legal issues and proposed reforms.
  • Implementation of Recommendations: The government reviews the reports and recommendations of the Law Commission and decides on their implementation. While the Commission’s recommendations are not binding, they often influence legislative changes and legal reforms.
  • Timeframe and Term: Each Law Commission has a specific term, usually three years, during which it functions. At the end of the term, a new Commission may be constituted.
  • Impact and Significance: The Law Commission’s recommendations and reports have played a crucial role in shaping Indian laws and legal reforms. Many landmark legislations and amendments have been based on the Commission’s suggestions.
  • Relationship with Judiciary and Parliament: The Law Commission often collaborates with the judiciary, seeking inputs from judges and addressing legal issues raised in court cases. It also interacts with Parliament, which may refer specific matters to the Commission for its expert opinion.
  • Recent Developments: The Law Commission continues to address contemporary legal challenges, such as reforms in family laws, criminal justice system, electoral laws, and other areas. It adapts to changing societal needs and legal developments to provide relevant recommendations


What is Uniform Civil Code (UCC)?

  • The UCC aims to establish a single personal civil law for the entire country, applicable to all religious communities in matters such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, adoption, etc.
  • The idea of a UCC has a long history in India and has been a topic of debate and discussion.
  • This article explores the basis for a UCC, its timeline, the conflict with the right to freedom of religion, minority opinions, challenges to implementation, and the way forward.

What is the latest development regarding 22nd Law Commission and UCC?

  • The 22nd Law Commission of India has expressed its intention to gather public opinions and engage with recognized religious organizations regarding the Uniform Civil Code (UCC).
  • The Commission aims to solicit views from the public as well as religious organizations on the topic of the UCC.
  • By actively seeking public opinions and engaging with religious organizations, the 22nd Law Commission aims to gather diverse perspectives on the UCC. This approach recognizes the significance of public input and the need to consider the viewpoints of various religious groups that may be affected by the implementation of a Uniform Civil Code.

What are the concerns associated with the process?

  • Opposition from Religious Organizations: Religious organizations may have differing views on the UCC, and some may oppose the idea altogether. Engaging with these organizations may lead to resistance and challenges in reaching a consensus on the implementation of a Uniform Civil Code.
  • Potential Polarization: The UCC is a sensitive and contentious issue in India due to its potential impact on religious personal laws. Engaging with religious organizations and seeking public opinions may further polarize society along religious lines, leading to heightened tensions and divisions.
  • Influence of Traditional Practices: Religious organizations may advocate for the preservation of traditional practices and oppose any reforms or changes proposed by the UCC. This can hinder the progress of gender equality and other social reforms that the UCC aims to achieve.
  • Difficulty in Reaching a Consensus: Gathering public opinions from a diverse population with varying viewpoints can make it challenging to reach a consensus on the implementation of the UCC. Conflicting opinions and interests may hinder the formulation of comprehensive and effective recommendations.
  • Delay in Decision-Making: Engaging with multiple stakeholders, including the public and religious organizations, can prolong the decision-making process. This delay may impede the timely implementation of reforms and the realization of the goals set by the UCC.
  • Dilution of Gender Justice: In some cases, religious organizations may advocate for the preservation of discriminatory practices against women in the name of religious freedom or cultural practices. This can hinder efforts to establish gender justice and equality, which are crucial objectives of the UCC.


Pragmatic recommendations put forth by the 21st Law Commission

  • Gender Justice and Uniformity of Rights: The Commission emphasized that family laws of every religion should be reformed to ensure gender justice. It advocated for the uniformity of rights rather than imposing uniform laws, recognizing the diversity of cultural practices while safeguarding equality.
  • Economic Rights of Women: The Commission highlighted the need to address the economic rights of women. It recommended the abolition of the Hindu coparcenary system, which was seen as being used for tax evasion. The Commission also proposed reforms in inheritance laws across religions to ensure fair and equal distribution of property.
  • No-Fault Divorce and Division of Matrimonial Property: The Commission suggested the introduction of “no-fault divorce” in all personal laws, simplifying the process of divorce and reducing the adversarial nature of divorce proceedings. It also recommended that all property acquired after marriage should be divided between the spouses upon dissolution of the marriage, ensuring equitable distribution.
  • Muslim Law of Inheritance and Succession: The Commission recommended the codification of the Muslim law of inheritance and succession, aiming to establish uniform provisions for Shias and Sunnis. It advocated for inheritance based on proximity to the deceased rather than preference to male agnates, promoting gender equality in inheritance rights.
  • Polygamy and Conversion: The Commission commented on the issue of polygamy and conversion, noting that while polygamy is permitted within Islam, it is rare among Indian Muslims. It highlighted instances of individuals from other religions misusing conversion to Islam for the sole purpose of solemnizing another marriage. This observation supported the need for a Uniform Civil Code.
  • Best Interest of the Child: The Commission stressed that courts should prioritize the principle of the “best interest of the child” in matters of custody and guardianship. This approach ensures that decisions related to child custody are made based on what is most beneficial for the child’s well-being and development.
  • Parsi and Christian Women’s Rights: The Commission addressed the rights of Parsi and Christian women, recommending reforms in their personal laws to ensure gender equality and protection of women’s rights.


  • The debate surrounding the Uniform Civil Code continues to evolve, with the 22nd Law Commission seeking public views and engaging religious organizations. However, it is crucial to consider the pragmatic recommendations made by the 21st Law Commission. Balancing diversity and equality remain a significant challenge, and any future actions regarding the UCC should strive to protect the rights of all individuals while recognizing the importance of cultural differences in a diverse society.

Also read:

Uniform Civil Code


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9 months ago

Respected ones,
there is error regarding LCI as This article tells us as Statutory Body but which is actually a executive body neither statutory nor consttitutional.
Sincere request you to put information which we can relaible mostly.


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