Terrorism and Challenges Related To It

UNODC World Drug Report 2024: Key Highlights


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: World Drug Report 2024, UNODC

Why in the News?

  • Global drug users reached 292 million in 2022, marking a 20% increase over the past decade. The report was released by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).


Aspect Details
Global Role Leader in the fight against illicit drugs and international crime, responsible for implementing the UN’s lead programme on terrorism.
Headquarters Vienna, Austria.
Establishment Formed in 1997 through the merger of the United Nations Drug Control Programme and the Centre for International Crime Prevention.
Functions 1. Educate people about the dangers of drug abuse.

2. Strengthens international action against illicit drug production and trafficking.

3. Improves crime prevention and assists with criminal justice reform.

4. Supports States in ratifying and implementing legal instruments against terrorism.

Funding Relies mainly on voluntary contributions from governments.
India and UNODC India works closely with UNODC on multiple fronts, including drug control, crime prevention, and anti-terrorism measures.


Cannabis Use: An Overview  

According to the WHO, cannabis is a generic term for the various psychoactive preparations of the plant Cannabis sativa. Following are the derived products of Cannabis:

  • THC: The major psychoactive constituent in cannabis is Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
  • Marijuana (Ganja): The Mexican term is frequently used to refer to cannabis leaves or other crude plant material in many countries.
  • Hashish: Refers to unpollinated female cannabis plants.
  • Cannabis Oil (Hashish Oil): A concentrate of cannabinoids obtained by solvent extraction of the crude plant material or resin.

International Laws Regulating Cannabis

  • Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND): The CND founded in 1946, is the UN agency mandated to control substances under global drug control conventions.
  • 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs: Cannabis has been on Schedule IV, the most dangerous category, since the convention’s inception.
    • Despite being on Schedule IV, many jurisdictions have legalized cannabis for medicinal and recreational use.
    • Over 50 countries now allow medicinal cannabis programs, and recreational use has been legalized in Canada, Uruguay, and 15 US states.

Indian Context: Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act (NDPS), 1985

  • Illegalization: The Act illegalizes any mixture of charas and ganja, or any drink prepared from them.
  • Legal Exceptions: The law does not ban the use of seeds and leaves of the cannabis plant if these are not mixed with other parts of the plant. For example, bhang, commonly consumed during the Holi festival, and chutney made from cannabis seeds are not illegal.


[2019] Consider the following statements:

  1. The United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) has a ‘Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air’.
  2. The UNCAC is the ever-first legally binding global anti-corruption instrument.
  3. A highlight of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) is the inclusion of a specific chapter aimed at returning assets to their rightful owners from whom they had been taken illicitly.
  4. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is mandated by its member States to assist in the implementation of both UNCAC and UNTOC.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 2 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

 [2018] India’s proximity to the two of the world’s biggest illicit opium-growing states has enhanced her internal security concerns. Explain the linkages between drug trafficking and other illicit activities such as gunrunning, money laundering and human trafficking. What counter-measures should be taken to prevent the same?

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