From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : UNSC 1267
Mains level : Global terrorist designations
The ISIL and Al Qaida Sanctions Committee of the UN Security Council (UNSC) has placed Abdul Rehman Makki, a fundraiser and key planner of the Pakistan-based terrorist outfit Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT), on its sanctions list.
Blacklisting Maki: Under UNSC 1267 list
- The UNSC resolution 1267 was adopted unanimously on 15 October 1999.
- It came to force in 1999, and strengthened after the September, 2001 attacks.
- It is now known as the Da’esh and Al Qaeda Sanctions Committee.
What is UNSC 1267 committee?
- It comprises all permanent and non-permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC).
- The 1267 list of terrorists is a global list, with a UNSC stamp.
- It is one of the most important and active UN subsidiary bodies working on efforts to combat terrorism, particularly in relation to Al Qaeda and the Islamic State group.
- It discusses UN efforts to limit the movement of terrorists, especially those related to travel bans, the freezing of assets and arms embargoes for terrorism.
How is the blacklisting done?
(1) Submission of Proposal
- Any member state can submit a proposal for listing an individual, group, or entity.
- The proposal must include acts or activities indicating the proposed individual/group/entity had participated in the financing, planning, facilitating, preparing, or perpetrating of acts or activities linked to the said organizations.
(2) Actual decision
- Decisions on listing and de-listing are adopted by consensus.
- The proposal is sent to all the members, and if no member objects within five working days, the proposal is adopted.
- An “objection” means rejection for the proposal.
(3) Putting and resolving ‘Technical Holds’
- Any member of the Committee may also put a “technical hold” on the proposal and ask for more information from the proposing member state.
- During this time, other members may also place their own holds.
- The matter remains on the “pending” list of the Committee.
- Pending issues must be resolved in six months, but the member state that has placed the hold may ask for an additional three months.
- At the end of this period, if an objection is not placed, the matter is considered approved.
How China supports Terror in Pakistan?
- China has exposed its double standards on the issue of terrorism for consistently stopping the listing of Pakistan-based terrorists.
- This time, Beijing has argued that the blacklisting is in fact a “recognition” of Pakistan’s record of fighting terrorism.
Here is a timeline of how China disrupts the global efforts against terrorism:
- 2009: After the 26/11 Mumbai attacks, India moved an independent terror designation proposal against Masood Azhar but China blocked the move.
- 2016: After seven years, India proposes listing of Masood Azhar as a global terrorist and is supported by the US, the UK and France. China blocks the move again.
- 2017: The trio moves a third proposal only to be blocked by China again.
- 2019: After the attacks on the CRPF personnel in J-K’s Pulwama, India calls 25 envoys of different countries to highlight the role Islamabad plays in funding, promoting and strengthening global terrorism. India moves the fourth proposal demanding Masood Azhar’s listing. China lifted its technical hold.
- June 2022: China blocked a proposal by India and the US to list Pakistan-based terrorist Abdul Rehman Makki as a ‘Global Terrorist’
- August 2022: China blocks India-US joint proposal to list Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM) deputy chief Abdul Rauf Azhar as UNSC designated terrorist.
Why China shields Pak-based terrorists?
- Rewarding Pakistan: China rewards Pakistan to keep India engaged in regional battles and internal conflicts.
- Oppressing the Uighurs: The quid pro quo is that Pakistan does not utter a word against Uighur Muslim oppression by China in restive Xinjiang province.
- China’s actions expose its double speak and double standards when it comes to the international community’s shared battle against terrorism.
- This clearly depicts its care for its vassal state Pakistan.
Back2Basics: United Nations Security Council (UNSC)
- The UNSC is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security.
- Its powers include the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of international sanctions, and the authorization of military action through Security Council resolutions.
- It is the only UN body with the authority to issue binding resolutions to member states.
- The Security Council consists of fifteen members. Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, and the United States—serve as the body’s five permanent members (P5).
- These permanent members can veto any substantive Security Council resolution, including those on the admission of new member states or candidates for Secretary-General.
- The Security Council also has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve two-year terms. The body’s presidency rotates monthly among its members.