Uniform Civil Code: Triple Talaq debate, Polygamy issue, etc.

Uttarakhand UCC is an attempt to control young people’s sexuality


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : na

Mains level : implementation of a Uniform Civil Code in Uttarakhand

Uniform Civil Code (UCC): In Uttarakhand

Central Idea:

The enactment of the Uniform Civil Code (UCC) in Uttarakhand marks a significant milestone in India, yet it has sparked controversy due to provisions requiring the registration of live-in relationships. This move, while aiming to address concerns over crimes against live-in couples, has raised questions about privacy, personal liberty, and the sanctity of informal relationships.

Key Highlights:

  • Uttarakhand becomes the first state to implement a Uniform Civil Code under Article 44 of the Constitution.
  • The UCC applies uniformly across religions, excluding tribal populations.
  • Controversial provisions mandate the registration of live-in relationships, blurring the line between informal unions and formal marriages.
  • Critics argue that such provisions infringe upon personal freedom and privacy rights.
  • The law requires partners to register their relationship with the registrar and imposes penalties for non-compliance.
  • The Code extends maintenance rights to women deserted by their live-in partners, similar to married women.
  • Children born in live-in relationships are recognized as legitimate under the proposed law.
  • The UCC applies to Uttarakhand residents both within the state and elsewhere in India.

Key Challenges:

  • Lack of sufficient discussion and debate in the state legislature and among communities.
  • Potential infringement on individual privacy and personal liberty.
  • Criminalization of non-registration and stringent penalties may discourage young couples from opting for live-in relationships.
  • Misuse of provisions by the registrar and societal interference.
  • Potential infantilization of adult women and erosion of the purpose of informal unions.

Main Terms:

  • Uniform Civil Code (UCC): A set of laws aimed at standardizing personal laws across different religious communities in India.
  • Live-in Relationship: Cohabitation between partners without formal marriage.
  • Registration: Formal documentation of a live-in relationship with the registrar.
  • Maintenance: Financial support provided by one partner to another after separation or desertion.
  • Legitimate Child: A child born to parents in a legally recognized relationship.
  • Summary Inquiry: An expedited investigation conducted by the registrar to validate live-in relationships.

Important Phrases:

  • “Relationship in the nature of marriage”: Describes the criteria for a live-in relationship under the UCC.
  • “Deserted by her live-in partner”: Refers to the condition for claiming maintenance under the proposed law.
  • “Summary inquiry”: Procedure conducted by the registrar to validate live-in relationships.


  • “Concerns over heinous crimes among live-in couples” – State official citing the rationale behind registration provisions.
  • “Protection of youngsters is also important” – Official highlighting the intention to safeguard individuals, particularly women.
  • “When women in relationships ‘in the nature of marriage’ complain of domestic violence, they are entitled to claim maintenance” – Highlighting existing legal provisions for protection.


  • Reports of incidents influencing public opinion during expert committee consultations.
  • Concerns raised by parents and elders during public consultations regarding the need for legal protection.

Useful Statements:

  • The registration requirement may erode the autonomy of individuals in choosing their relationship structures.
  • Existing legal frameworks, such as the Domestic Violence Act, already provide protection for individuals in live-in relationships.
  • The provision for summary inquiries by registrars raises concerns about potential misuse and infringement on privacy rights.

Examples and References:

  • Instances of crimes against live-in couples cited as driving factors behind registration provisions.
  • Comparisons drawn between the UCC’s treatment of live-in relationships and existing marriage laws.

Facts and Data:

  • Uttarakhand is the first state to enact a Uniform Civil Code.
  • Penalties for non-registration and desertion in live-in relationships include fines and imprisonment.
  • The UCC extends maintenance rights to women in live-in relationships.

Critical Analysis:

  • The UCC’s registration requirements may contradict the essence of informal unions and infringe upon personal liberties.
  • Concerns over misuse of provisions by authorities and societal interference raise questions about the law’s effectiveness and fairness.
  • The proposed UCC may fail to address the root causes of crimes against live-in couples and could deter individuals from opting for such relationships.

Way Forward:

  • Engage in comprehensive discussions and debates to address concerns and refine provisions of the UCC.
  • Ensure that laws prioritize individual freedoms while providing necessary protections.
  • Consider alternative approaches to addressing crimes against live-in couples, focusing on prevention and support mechanisms rather than punitive measures.

In conclusion, while the implementation of a Uniform Civil Code in Uttarakhand signifies progress towards legal standardization, provisions regarding the registration of live-in relationships raise complex issues regarding privacy, personal liberty, and the sanctity of informal unions. It is imperative to address these concerns through informed dialogue and thoughtful policymaking to strike a balance between protection and individual autonomy.

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