Air Pollution

What are Green Crackers?


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Green crackers

Mains level: Not Much


Many states have outlawed firecrackers and mandated the production, sale, and usage of only green firecrackers in light of Diwali’s impending arrival and the air pollution crisis.

What are green crackers?

  • Green Crackers are fireworks that are healthy to the environment and can lessen the air pollution that conventional firecrackers produce.
  • The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) created these.
  • These green crackers, designed by the National Environmental and Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), a CSIR lab, contain flower pots, pencils, fireworks, maroons, bombs, and chakkar.

How are they made?

  • Green crackers, also known as eco-friendly crackers, are made from alternative raw materials to have a smaller negative impact on the environment and to pose fewer health hazards.
  • It has been stated that green crackers are environmentally friendly because they don’t contain aluminum, barium, potassium nitrate, or carbon.

Are they totally pollution free?

  • Green crackers are 30% less polluting than regular ones.
  • Green crackers have less or no barium, and that the chemical barium nitrate is what causes the smoke and emissions.
  • In addition to lowering air pollution, green crackers are said to have a lower sound level than the ordinary crackers—between 110 and 125 decibels as opposed to roughly 160 decibels for conventional crackers.
  • Despite all of their benefits, these environmentally friendly firecrackers are more expensive than standard ones.

Types of green crackers

(1) SWAS – Safe Water Releaser

  • They will discharge water vapour into the atmosphere, which will dampen the discharged dust.
  • It won’t contain sulphur or potassium nitrate.
  • There will be a release of a diluent for gaseous emissions.
  • There will be a 30% reduction in the amount of particle dust emitted.

(2) STAR – Safe Thermite Cracker

  • Does not contain sulphur and potassium nitrate
  • Discharge of less particulate matter
  • Lowered noise level

(3) SAFAL – Safe Minimal Aluminum

  • Does not contain sulphur and potassium nitrate
  • Discharge of less particulate matter
  • Lowered noise level as compared to traditional ones

Judicial observation over fire-crackers

  • It is made clear that there is no total ban on the use of firecrackers.
  • Only those firecrackers are banned (joined, chemical) which are found to be injurious to health and affect the health of the citizens particularly the senior citizens and the children.

What are the traders’ concerns?

  • Traders have expressed concerns about the crackers’ shelf life due to the new green cracker composition.
  • Manufacturers also need to overcome the rigorous certification process run by the Petroleum and Explosives Safety Organisation (PESO).


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