From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Black Rain
Mains level : Hiroshima and Nagasaki Bombings by US
Ahead of the 75th anniversary of Hiroshima, a Japanese court has recognised 84 survivors of the post-nuclear explosion “black rain” as the atomic bomb survivors. This would enable them to avail free medical benefits.
Try this question from CSP 2011:
Q.Acid rain is caused by the pollution of the environment by:
(a) Carbon dioxide and nitrogen
(b) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide
(c) Ozone and carbon dioxide
(d) Nitrous oxide and Sulphur dioxide
What is Black Rain?
- An estimated 69 per cent of the buildings in Hiroshima were destroyed by the atomic bomb.
- The debris and soot from this, mixed with the radioactive fallout from the bomb, raised high into the atmosphere in the form of a mushroom cloud.
- This material combined with the vapour in the atmosphere and came down as dark drops of liquid that have been called black rain.
- Survivors of the black rain described it as consisting of large, greasy drops that are much heavier than normal raindrops.
- It is full of highly radioactive material, and studies have shown that exposure to it can result in serious illnesses.
What was its effect?
- A study conducted in the year 1945 itself showed that black rain had come down as far as 29 km away from ground zero.
- The rain contaminated everything it came in contact with, and dead fish were reported floating in water bodies and severely ill cattle were seen lying in the fields.
- It has caused acute radiation symptoms (ARS) in many who were exposed to it, with reports of people suffering from nausea and diarrhoea for weeks.
- Other ARS include fever, sore throat and loss of hair. Over time, many people who were exposed to black rain have developed cancer.