From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Khazan farming, Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary
Mains level : Integrated Farming System, Khazan etc.
The Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary in low-lying floodplains of Goa is characterized by an estuarine agricultural system called Khazan farming.
Try this question from our AWE initiative:
- The low-lying floodplains of Goa host an estuarine agricultural system called Khazan farming.
- This system is a carefully designed topo-hydro-engineered agro-aquacultural ecosystem mainly based on the regulation salinity and tides.
How does it work?
- Centuries ago, people in this region reclaimed low-lying brackish coastal floodplains and mangrove forests.
- They constructed bunds using locally available material to prevent the ingress of saltwater, which killed the halophilic mangroves.
- To control the flow of tidal waters, they built openings in bunds fitted with one-way gates.
- These channels would fill in with the oncoming tide and bring with them fish, crab and shrimp, and the gates would automatically shut when the water level was equal on both sides.
- This prevented the water from overflowing into the fields used to grow paddy and which has a low tolerance to salt.
- When the tide receded, these gates would open outwards automatically, allowing the water to drain out.
- During this time, a bag net was set at the gate to catch fish that had entered in earlier.
Benefits of Khazan
- Every bit of space was precious and used efficiently — the bunds were used to grow a variety of vegetables.
- The Khazan system allowed for the farmer and the fisher to harmoniously coexist and was the key to sustaining what is considered Goa’s staple — fish, curry and rice.
Why is it neglected these days?
- Today, for various reasons, but primarily due to post-independence agrarian reforms of 1961, these lands largely lie fallow and are in a state of decay.
- Lack of cultivation and maintenance of the bunds and sluice gates is leading to their breaching and the natural reclamation of these fallow lands by mangroves.
- Moreover, mangroves are protected by law and it is illegal to cut them.
- Areas that have these trees growing on them also come under the purview of the coastal regulation zone (CRZ); according to the 2011 notification, the mangrove areas are classified as CRZ I and cannot be developed upon.
Back2Basics: Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary
- The Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary is Goa’s smallest protected area — it comprises barely two square kilometres of lush mangrove forests.
- The sanctuary is located on Chorão, one of Goa’s estuarine islands in the Mandovi river approximately five kilometres from capital Panaji.
- The sanctuary and its surrounds are home to marsh crocodiles, smooth-coated otter, the unique glossy-marsh snake that feeds on crabs, mud lobsters, sap-sucking sea slugs, among others.