Modern Indian History-Events and Personalities

Who was Alluri Sitarama Raju?


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: Alluri Sitarama Raju

Mains level: Tribal revolts


Central Idea

  • The President of India, Draupadi Murmu, honoured the freedom fighter Alluri Sitarama Raju during the closing ceremony of his 125th birth anniversary celebrations in Hyderabad.
  • The President highlighted the significance of Raju’s struggle against injustice and exploitation in India’s freedom struggle.

Alluri Sitarama Raju

  • Raju was believed to be born in 1897 or 1898 in Andhra Pradesh.
  • He became a sanyasi (ascetic) at the age of 18 and gained a mystical aura among the hill and tribal people due to his austerity, knowledge of astrology and medicine, and his ability to tame wild animals.

Revolutionary Activities

  • Raju channelled the discontent of the hill people in Ganjam, Visakhapatnam, and Godavari into effective guerrilla resistance against the British.
  • The Forest Act of 1882 and other colonial policies threatened the tribals’ traditional podu cultivation and forced them into labor.
  • The tribals and muttadars (village headmen) who were affected by the curtailment of their powers by the British government joined together in armed resistance against colonial rule in August 1922.

Contribution to the Freedom Struggle

  • Raju’s guerrilla war, known as the Rampa or Manyam Rebellion, continued until May 1924.
  • The rebellion coincided with Mahatma Gandhi’s Non-Cooperation Movement.
  • Raju admired Gandhi and promoted his ideas of wearing khadi (homespun cloth) and giving up alcohol.
  • However, Raju believed that India could only be liberated through the use of force, contrary to Gandhi’s principle of non-violence.

Capture and Execution

  • Raju’s resistance came to an end when he was captured by the British in May 1924.
  • He was executed for his involvement in the rebellion.
  • Raju became known as the ‘Manyam Veerudu’ or Hero of the Jungle, and his efforts are remembered as a significant contribution to India’s freedom struggle.


  • Overall, Alluri Sitharama Raju played a crucial role in leading a guerrilla resistance against British colonial rule, fighting for the rights of tribal communities, and advocating for India’s independence through forceful means.

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