e-Waste Management

Apr, 15, 2019

India stares at pile of solar e-waste


  • By 2050, India will likely stare at a pile of a new category of electronic waste, namely solar e-waste, says a study.
  • Currently, India’s e-waste rules have no laws mandating solar cell manufacturers to recycle or dispose waste from this sector.

Solar waste in India

  • India is among the leading markets for solar cells in the world, buoyed by the government’s commitment to install 100 GW of solar power by 2022.
  • So far, India has installed solar cells for about 28 GW and this is largely from imported solar PV cells.
  • India’s PV (photovoltaic) waste volume is estimated to grow to 200,000 tonnes by 2030 and around 1.8 million tonnes by 2050 said the study by Bridge To India (BTI), an energy consultancy firm.

What are these modules consisting of?

  • Solar cell modules are made by processing sand to make silicon, casting silicon ingots, using wafers to create cells and then assembling them to make modules.
  • India’s domestic manufacturers are largely involved in assembling cells and modules.
  • These modules are 80% glass and aluminium, and non-hazardous. Other materials used, including polymers, metals, metallic compounds and alloys, and are classified as potentially hazardous.

What worries India?

  • While the solar sector continues to grow robustly, there is no clarity on solar waste management in India.
  • India is poorly positioned to handle PV waste as it doesn’t yet have policy guidelines on the same.
  • A lack of a policy framework is coupled with the fact that even basic recycling facilities for laminated glass and e-waste are unavailable.
  • Despite the e-waste regulation being in place for over seven years, only less than 4% of estimated e-waste is recycled in the organised sector as per the latest estimates from the Central Pollution Control Board.
Dec, 26, 2018

[op-ed snap] The afterlife of e-goods


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From the UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: E-Waste Management Rules 2016

Mains level: Problem of e-waste and ways to tackle it


E-Waste problem

  1. E-waste is one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world
  2. The Global E-Waste Monitor estimates that 44.7 million tonnes (mt) of e-waste was generated in 2016
  3. India was the fourth-largest generator (2 mt) after China (7.2 mt), the US (6.3 mt) and Japan (2.1 mt) in 2016
  4. As Indians spend more on electronic items and appliances with rising incomes, e-waste is expected to continue to grow rapidly

Reasons for rising e-waste

  1. E-waste is generated when electrical or electronic equipment (EEE) is discarded, or returned within warranty, by consumers, and also from manufacturing and repair rejects
  2. Discarded laptops, desktops, cellphones and their batteries, air conditioners and television sets, cables and wires, tubelights and CFLs which contain mercury, are some examples of e-waste
  3. While technology obsolescence creates e-waste (for example, landline phones, 2G vs 4G), power supply voltage surges which damage electronics are a major factor contributing to India’s e-waste
  4. India enjoys a frugal hand-me-down culture with a long line of re-users from a younger sibling to a maid to her village. As a result, our e-waste takes a lot longer to reach end of life
  5. An additional problem arises when developed countries export their e-waste for recycling and/or disposal (legally or illegally) to developing countries, including India

Poor recycling & associated health hazards

  1. A study by ASSOCHAM and NEC finds that a mere 5 per cent of India’s e-waste gets recycled, much less than the global recycling rate of only 20 per cent
  2. 95 percent of India’s e-waste is managed by the unorganised sector (kabadiwalas, scrap dealers and dismantlers) using dangerous methods to recover metals from circuit-boards and wires
  3. Since electrical wires are almost invariably encased in PVC, which contains 57 per cent chlorine, the act of burning produces deadly dioxins
  4. The smoke from such burning is known to cause cancer, damage the nervous system, and also poses several other health hazards
  5. The National Green Tribunal has advised a ban on single-use PVC and short-life PVC products but not on wires and cables
  6. The workers themselves ignore safety measures needed for their work

Measures that can be taken

  1. Management of e-waste requires its dismantling, refurbishment or recycling and safe disposal
  2. The E-Waste Management Rules 2016 address these issues. Extended producer responsibility is mandated to ensure effective plans for the collection, setting up collection centres and buyback mechanisms or a deposit refund scheme
  3. But the Rules need to be backed by enforcement of the regulatory framework, provision of the necessary infrastructure, and an enabling environment for compliance
  4. Wire stripping units can be set up at the points of aggregation and burning, funded by wire and cable manufacturers
  5. Similarly, producers can offer attractive buyback prices for circuit boards and channelise their recycling to the formal sector
  6. Cities should organise quarterly collection drives or provide drop -off centres. Producers should set up collection centres for EEE
  7. Ideally, we should all purchase new products turning in our old ones for a discount so that dealers become aggregators for channelising e-items to authorised dismantlers

Way forward

  1. A rapidly growing e-waste crisis needs rapid official decision making and time-bound responses
Jun, 06, 2018

India among top 5 nations in e-waste generation: Report


Mains Paper 3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspectives, following things are important:

Prelims level: Highlights of the report, E-Waste

Mains level: Hazards of high e-waste generation and their management.


ASSOCHAM-NEC joint study on “World Environment Day”

  1. India is among the top five e-waste generating countries in the world besides China, the US, Japan and Germany, according to a report
  2. The global volume of e-waste is expected to reach 52.2 million tonnes (MT) or 6.8 kg per inhabitant by 2021 from 44.7 MT in 2016 at a compound annual growth rate of 20%, according to the study
  3. Among states, Maharashtra contributes the largest e-waste of 19.8% but recycles only about 47,810 tonnes per annum (TPA)
  4. Of the total e-waste produced in 2016, only 20% (8.9 MT) is documented to be collected properly and recycled, while there is no record of the remaining, e-waste, the study said



  1. E-waste typically includes discarded computer monitors, motherboards, Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT), Printed Circuit Board (PCB), mobile phones and chargers, compact discs, headphones, white goods such as Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)/ Plasma televisions, air conditioners, refrigerators etc.
  2. Arsenic, Barium, Brominated flame- Casing, Cadmium, Chrome , Cobalt, Copper, Lead, Lithium, Mercury, Nickel Alloys, Selenium, Zinc, Steel, Brass alloys etc are some of the pollutants or toxins in the e-waste that can harm human, animal and plant life
  3. High and prolonged exposure to these chemicals/ pollutants emitted during unsafe e-waste recycling leads to damage of nervous systems, blood systems, kidneys and brain development, respiratory disorders, skin disorders, bronchitis, lung cancer, heart, liver, and spleen damage
Jun, 07, 2016

India's e-waste growing at 30% per annum: study- IV

  1. Main sources: The government, public and private (industrial) sectors, which account for almost 75% of total waste generation
  2. The contribution of individual households is relatively small at about 16%, the rest being contributed by manufacturers
  3. Though individual households are not large contributors to waste generated by computers, they consume large quantities of consumer durables and are, therefore, potential creators of waste
Jun, 07, 2016

India's e-waste growing at 30% per annum: study- III

  1. Over 95% of e-waste generated is managed by the unorganised sector and scrap dealers in this market, dismantle the disposed products instead of recycling it
  2. About 4-5 lakhs child labours between the age group of 10-15 are observed to be engaged in various e-waste (electronic waste) activities, without adequate protection and safeguards in various yards and recycling workshops
  3. Despite the Indian government stringent law to regulate e-waste trade, destitute children still face hazards picking apart old computers, TV etc.
  4. Health: About 2/3 of e-waste workers in India suffering from respiratory ailments like breathing difficulties, irritation, coughing, choking, tremors problem
  5. Need: To bring out effective legislation to prevent entry of child labour into its collection, segregation and distribution
Jun, 07, 2016

India's e-waste growing at 30% per annum: study- II

  1. Components: Computer equipment accounts for almost 70% of e-waste material followed by telecommunication equipment (12%), electrical equipment (8%) and medical equipment (7%)
  2. Other equipment, including household e-crap account for the remaining 4%
  3. Recycling: A mere 1.5% of India’s total e-waste gets recycled
  4. Reasons: Poor infrastructure, legislation and framework
  5. Effects: A waste of diminishing natural resources, irreparable damage of environment and health of the people working in industry
Jun, 07, 2016

India's e-waste growing at 30% per annum: study- I

  1. Context: A study on ‘Electronic Waste Management in India’ conducted by ASSOCHAM–cKinetics on World Environment Day
  2. India: Emerging as one of the world’s major electronic waste generators and likely to generate 52 lakh metric tonnes (MT) per annum by 2020 from the current level 18 lakh MT
  3. Growth: A compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of about 30%
  4. Global: Volume of e-waste generated is expected to reach 130 million tons in 2018 from 93.5 million tons in 2016 at a compound annual growth rate of 17.6% from 2016 to 2018
May, 26, 2016

India fifth largest producer of e-waste: Study

  1. Context: A joint study by Assocham & KPMG
  2. India is the fifth largest producer of e-waste, discarding roughly 18.5 lakh tonnes of electronic waste each year
  3. Also, India has emerged as the world’s second largest mobile market
  4. As a result, telecom equipment alone accounts for 12% of the e-waste
  5. With more than 100 crore mobile phones in circulation, nearly 25% end up in e-waste annually
  6. The stduy suggests that electronic waste collection targets should be implemented in a phased manner with lower and practically achievable target limits
  7. Also, detailed implementation procedures for collection of electronic waste from the market need to be followed
Aug, 19, 2015

India's Growing E-waste: A Fact Sheet

Apr, 22, 2015

India 5th biggest generator of e-waste in 2014: UN report

  1. As per recently released Global E-Waste Monitor 2014 report by United Nations, India is the fifth biggest producer of e-waste in the world.
  2. Top 5 e-waste producing nations: US, China, Japan, Germany and India.
  3. India has discarded around 1.7 million tonnes (Mt) of e-waste in 2014.
  4. Top 3 Asian e-waste producing nations are- China (6.0Mt), Japan (2.2Mt) and India (1.7Mt).
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