NAPCC: India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change

NAPCC: India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change

Multiple threats to Himalayan biodiversity


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspectives, the following things are important

Prelims Level: Particular details about Himalayan Biogeographic zone, Richness in Fauna and Endemic Species

Mains Level: The newscard talks in general about the biodiversity richness of Himalaya and highlights Threats to it.


Zoological Survey of India Report

  1. The Indian Himalayas, which constitute about 12% of the country’s landmass, is home to about 30.16% of its fauna, says a new publication from the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI)
  2. The publication, Faunal Diversity of Indian Himalaya, lists 30,377 species/subspecies in the region with the entire identified fauna in the country adding up to 1,00,762

The spread of Himalayan Region

  1. Spread across six States — from Jammu and Kashmir in the west through Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and West Bengal’s Darjeeling to Arunachal Pradesh in the far east.
  2. The Indian Himalayas are divided into two bio-geographic zones — the Trans-Himalaya and the Himalaya, based on physiographic, climatic and eco-biological attributes

Abundance of species

  1. The entire region, spread over 3.95 lakh sq. km. is home to 280 species of mammals, 940 species of birds, 316 species of fishes, 200 species of reptiles and 80 species of amphibians
  2. This put together accounts for 27.6% of the total vertebrate diversity of the country

Unique Features of the Himalayan region

  1. The ZSI publication lists 133 vertebrate species of the region cited as threatened in the IUCN Red List. This includes 43 species of mammals like the critically endangered Pygmy Hog, the Namdapha flying squirrel and the endangered Snow leopard, the Red Panda and the Kashmir Gray Langur
  2. Fifty-two species of birds are also in the threatened category like the critically endangered White-Bellied Heron and Siberian crane and vulnerable species like the Black Necked crane and the Indian Spotted Eagle, among others
  3. Some of the rare high-altitude butterflies found in the Himalayas are Parnassius stoliczkanus (Ladakh banded Apollo) and Parnassius epaphus (Red Apollo), listed under Schedule I and Schedule II of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, respectively


  1. Most of the threatened species of vertebrates, particularly mammals, require population assessment and study of the role of climate change on their habitat
  2. Climate change is a major threat as far as mammals and birds are concerned
  3. The impact is visible in the shifting distribution of sensitive species like the Asiatic Black Bear, the Snow leopard, and the Himalayan Marmot
  4. Carnivores and their habitats are threatened by ever-increasing human-wildlife conflict in the region
  5. Habitat loss due to land use change, illegal wildlife trade, forest fires and increasing anthropogenic activities pose threats to this Himayalan biodiversity
NAPCC: India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change

Environment ministry to start ‘Himalayan Research Fellowships scheme’


Mains Paper 3: Environment | Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: Himalayan Research Fellowships scheme, National Mission on Himalayan Studies

Mains level: Measures being undertaken for preserving Himalayas

Himalayan Research Fellowships scheme

  1. The union environment ministry has decided to start a ‘Himalayan Research Fellowships scheme’ to create a young pool of trained environmental managers, ecologists, and socio-economists
  2. This pool will help generate information on physical, biological, managerial and human aspects of Himalayan environment and development
  3. This is among the series of programmes that MoEFCC is running for conservation and protection of Himalayas

About the scheme

  1. The fellowship scheme will be executed through various universities and Institutions working in the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR)
  2. Preference will be given to the Institutions from north-eastern states
  3. Fellowships will be awarded for a maximum period of three years
  4. The financial support will be provided under the National Mission on Himalayan Studies (NMHS)
NAPCC: India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change

‘Green energy targets remain a mirage’

Just about half of that target was met, according to the CAG.

  1. An audit report tabled in Parliament showed that government had failed to meet its targets for scaling up use of renewable energy sources under National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC).
  2. The NAPCC had envisaged raising renewable energy sources to 8 per cent of the national energy mix for electricity by 2012-13 and 9 per cent by 2013-14.
  3. The national achievement for purchase of electricity from renewable energy sources in those 2 years was only 4.28 per cent and 4.51 per cent, respectively.
  4. Except for Tamil Nadu and Himachal Pradesh, none of the 24 States it reviewed had fixed their renewable purchase obligations.
NAPCC: India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change

Another development task for Indiaop-ed snap

Even with a focused approach, India will face several challenges, external and internal, in implementing selected Sustainable Development Goals.

  1. The SDG agenda negotiated by the UN membership over the past three years is, perhaps, the most ambitious roadmap ever drawn up by the world body.
  2. It lists 17 goals ranging from “Goal 1 – End poverty in all its forms everywhere” to “Goal 17  Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development” and a staggering 169 targets that need to be monitored and implemented by 2030.
  3. In contrast, the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), adopted by countries in 2000 to reduce extreme poverty by 2015, had a mere eight goals and 18 targets less than half and around one-tenth of the SDG goals and targets respectively.
  4. Domestic efforts of a single country China , that pulled more people out of poverty than any other.
  5. Today, India is home to more than 30% of the global estimate of over 1 billion people who live in extreme poverty.
  6. A single Indian state Uttar Pradesh (UP),accounts for 8% of the world’s population living in extreme poverty.
  7. Externally, India will have to raise adequate resources and also acquire the necessary technology to help achieve its SDG objectives.
  8. In particular, the panchayat, which will be crucial to ensuring inclusion at the local level, remains the weakest link.
  9. Finally, NITI Aayog, which also has the task of monitoring progress on implementation of the SDGs, will have to innovate to keep track of all 169 targets.

These formidable challenges notwithstanding, were India to succeed in addressing them, it will not only help achieve the SDGs, but would also put India on the path of becoming a global power.

NAPCC: India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change

Approval of National Offshore Wind Energy Policy

  1. Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE) authorized as the Nodal Ministry for use of offshore areas within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).
  2. National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE) has been authorized as the Nodal Agency for development of offshore wind energy in the country.
  3. Helps in attaining energy security and achievement of the NAPCC targets.
  4. Worldwide, wind energy is accepted as one of the most developed, cost-effective and proven renewable energy technologies.

Discuss National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) targets and success?

NAPCC: India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change

NGT can’t settle issues on climate change, says MoEF

  1. The NGT has the jurisdiction over all civil cases where a substantial question relating to environment is involved.
  2. These cases can arise out of – The Water Act, The Water Cess Act, The Forest (Conservation) Act, The Air Act, The Environment Protection Act, The Public Liability Insurance Act & The Biological Diversity Act.
  3. When an environmentalist asked for the records of steps taken by the Govt. on NAPCC, the center replied with this –
  4. “India is a signatory to the UNFCC & is not under obligations to NGT on that.”

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