Transition From MDG to SDG: Issues & Concern

Dec, 22, 2018

[pib] NITI Aayog Releases SDG India Index, 2018


Mains Paper 2: Governance | Issues relating to development & management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

From UPSC perspective, the following things are important:

Prelims level: SDG India Index

Mains level: India’s strategy and outcomes towards attaining SDGs


  • The NITI Aayog has released the Baseline Report of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) India Index, which comprehensively documents the progress made by India’s States and UTs towards implementing the 2030 SDG targets.

SDG India Index

  1. The Index was developed in collaboration with the Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation (MoSPI), Global Green Growth Institute and United Nations in India and was launched by NITI Aayog.
  2. NITI Aayog has the twin mandate to oversee the implementation of SDGs in the country, and also promote Competitive and Cooperative Federalism among States and UTs.
  3. The SDG India Index acts as a bridge between these mandates, aligning the SDGs with the PM’s clarion call of Sabka Saath, Sabka Vikas.
  4. It embodies the five Ps of the global SDG movement – people, planet, prosperity, partnership and peace.

Utility of the Index

  1. The SDG India Index tracks progress of all States and UTs on 62 Priority Indicators selected by NITI Aayog, which in turn is guided by MoSPI’s National Indicator Framework comprising 306 indicators.
  2. The Index spans 13 out of 17 SDGs.
  3. Progress on SDGs 12, 13 & 14 could not be measured as relevant State/UT level data were not available and SDG 17 was left out as it focuses on international partnerships.
  4. A composite score was computed between the range of 0-100 for each State and UT based on their aggregate performance towards achieving 13 SDGs
  5. If a State/UT achieves a score of 100, it signifies that it has achieved the 2030 national targets. The higher the score of a State/UT, the greater the distance to target achieved.

Classification Criteria based on Score:

  • Aspirant: 0-49
  • Performer: 50-64
  • Front Runner: 65-99
  • Achiever: 100

Performance of states

OVERALL Aspirant Assam, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh
Performer Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur,
Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Telangana, Tripura, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Delhi and Lakshadweep
Front Runner Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Chandigarh and Puducherry
Achiever NA


Overall Findings

Particular State UT
SDG India Index Score Range 42-69 57-68
Top Performer/s Himachal Pradesh & Kerala Chandigarh
Aspirant Uttar Pradesh Dadra & Nagar Haveli
  • Himachal Pradesh ranks high on providing clean water & sanitation, in reducing inequalities & preserving mountain ecosystem
  • Kerala’s top rank is attributed to its superior performance in providing good health, reducing hunger, achieving gender equality & providing quality education
  • Chandigarh leads because of its exemplary performance in providing clean water & sanitation, affordable & clean energy, generating decent work & economic growth, & providing quality education
Oct, 10, 2015

Go unconventional in raising funds for achieving SDGs!

The Union Finance Minister, Shri Arun Jaitley participated in the meeting of G-20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors in Peru on October 8, 2015.

Why did this topic come? Uncertainty surrounding recovery of the global economy but SDGs need to be achieved, no!

Fair Point, what has India done? 5 main points:

  1. Unique identity linked financial inclusion programme resulted in opening of 180 million new bank accounts enabling direct transfer of benefits.
  2. Mudra Bank to provide loans to micro and small enterprises.
  3. India has stepped up public investments, particularly in infrastructure sector which offset slowdown in private investments.
  4. India has set an ambitious target of achieving 175 gigawatts of power generation by 2022 through a mix of renewable energy sources.
  5. Also, did we forget the international tax co-operation? Particularly the automatic exchange of tax information.
Sep, 10, 2015

India in no position to meet SDGs

2016 will see transition from MDGs, which had 8 global development goals and 18 associated targets to SDGs with 17 global development goals and its 169 associated targets.

  1. But India do not have adequate data to frame relevant policy as well as financial resources to meet these targets.
  2. However, India has committed to provide health, nutrition and education for all by 2022, on occasion of 75 years of Independence, which will be midway to the 2030 SDGs deadline.
  3. An UN assessment points that India has failed to fulfill the MDGs targets under various heads, such as primary education, women empowerment, child mortality and open defecation.
  4. The need to augment financial resources can be achieved by improving its tax to GDP ratio and plugging the tax erosion.
Sep, 09, 2015

India missed 2015 child mortality target: Lancet report

  1. Fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG-4) aimed to reduce mortality, between 1990 and 2015, among children under five by two-thirds.
  2. India has the highest number of child deaths in the world, with an estimated 1.2 million deaths in 2015, 20% of the 5.9 million global deaths.
  3. In India, more than half of the child deaths occur in the first month of life.
  4. The major clinical causes being complications of premature delivery and infectious diseases.
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