Swachh Bharat Mission

Swachh Bharat Mission

Top-notch Aspirational Toilets to usher in change


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Aspirational Toilets

Mains level : Swachh Bharat Mission and its success


The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs has issued a directive to all state governments to ensure that 25% of public toilet seats added in any city or urban unit are “aspirational toilets.”

What are Aspirational Toilets?

  • The aspirational toilets scheme was launched in September 2022 as part of the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) 2.0, with an aim to help make cities open defecation free.
  • A quarter of all new public restrooms in Indian cities will soon have high-end features such as luxurious bath cubicles, touchless flushing, breast-feeding rooms, and automatic sanitary napkin incinerators.
  • These will be indicated as “aspirational toilets” on Google Maps.

Focus areas for constructing aspirational toilets

  • The focus areas for constructing these luxury toilets will be tourist and religious destinations, as well as iconic cities.
  • High-footfall locations such as markets, railway stations, inter-state bus depots, and national highways will be given priority.
  • Guidelines have been issued to the states for constructing these toilets. It also includes low-height toilets and basins for children.
  • Hand-dryers, paper napkins, and vending machines for sanitary napkins are proposed to be made available.

Maintenance and funding patterns

  • One of the business models being explored for the maintenance of these toilets is attaching them with other public services such as restaurants, shopping malls, libraries, cinema halls, or even medicine shops, to make them self-sustaining.
  • Experts have cautioned that a proper study must be done on the location and the way these toilets will be maintained before beginning any such project.

Back2Basics: Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban) 2.0


Objective Make all cities in India “garbage-free”
Period 5 years (1st Oct 2021 – 1st Oct 2026)
Focus Sustainable solid waste management, sustainable sanitation and treatment of used water, and promoting behavior change through citizen outreach
Segregation of waste All households and premises required to segregate their waste into “wet waste” and “dry waste”
Collection of waste Aims to achieve 100% door-to-door collection of segregated waste from each household/premise
Waste management Aims to achieve 100% scientific management of all fractions of waste, including safe disposal in scientific landfills, remediation of all legacy dumpsites, and the conversion of these sites into green zones
Sanitation Aims to promote holistic sanitation, with end-to-end solutions, treatment of used water before discharge into water bodies, and maximum reuse of treated used water
Citizen outreach Aims to create awareness and institutionalize “Swachh” behavior through large-scale citizen outreach
Institutional capacity Aims to create institutional capacity to effectively implement programmatic interventions to achieve mission objectives



Swachh Bharat Mission

Swachh Bharat Mission 2.0 : A Pledge


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

Mains level : Health and Sanitation

 Swachh Bharat mission 2.0 Context

  • As we celebrate the 75th anniversary of India’s independence, much can be said about the progress the country has made in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) concerning sanitation. Public-private partnerships are building on successes of the first phase of the Swachh Bharat Mission and setting more ambitious goals for the next phase Swachh Bharat Mission 2.0

What is Swachh Bharat Mission?

  • On 2nd October 2014, Swachh Bharat Mission was launched throughout length and breadth of the country as a national movement
  • This year also Swachh Bharat Abhiyan 2.0 will be launched on 1 October 2022.
  • Aim: Swachh Bharat Abhiyan aims to connect people from different regions, languages and backgrounds. Swachh Bharat 2.0 is not just a programme but it is an effort to make people realise the importance of cleanliness. It will also contribute to better the happiness index of the country.
  • Objective: The objective of Swachh Bharat 2.0 is to increase awareness about cleanliness, organise people and ensure participation of the countrymen, especially the youth, in making India clean. 744 districts and six lakh villages of the country will be linked to the campaign through all youth trusts, national service scheme and other voluntary organisations.

 Swachh Bharat mission 2.0 How was the situation before Swachh Bharat Mission?

  • Low coverage: Till 2014, sanitation coverage in India was as low as 39 per cent. Around 55 crore people in rural areas were without a toilet facility before 2014 and this severely affected the health and dignity of our people, especially women and children.
  • Prevalence of diseases: The greatest and perhaps most significant impact of poor sanitation is on health. Exposure to contaminated drinking water and food with pathogen laden human waste is a major cause of diarrhoea and can cause cholera, trachoma, intestinal worms, etc, leading to the “stunting” of huge swathes of our children.
  • Impact on environment: Poor hygiene and waste management practices also impact the environment with untreated sewage flowing directly into water bodies and affecting coastal and marine ecosystems, contaminating soil and air, and exposing millions to disease.
  • Economy suffers: Poor sanitary practices impact the economy adversely. A study by the World Bank states that the absence of toilets and conventional sanitation costs India 6.4 per cent of its GDP in 2006. The economic impact of poor sanitation for India is at least $38.5 billion every year under health, education, access time and tourism.

 Swachh Bharat mission 2.0 All you need to know about Swachh Bharat Mission 1.0.

  • Open defecation Free India: The launch of the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) by the Prime Minister on October 2, 2014, had a unique goal to achieve universal sanitation coverage and to make the country Open Defecation Free (ODF).
  • Toilet construction: By offering financial incentives for building household toilets, as well as community toilets for slums and migrant populations, the government gave a huge fillip to the toilet infrastructure.
  • Behaviour changes programmes: To bring changes to the age old idea that the toilets in the home were unclean, the government ran several programmes with the participation of the private sector and NGOs to educate the population on the benefits of ODF in what is acclaimed as one of the largest behaviours change programmes in the world.
  • From 2014 to 2020, more than 10 crore toilets were constructed. The country declared itself ODF on October 2, 2019.

 Swachh Bharat mission 2.0  Swachh Bharat mission 2.0 

  • The second phase of the project, which commenced in 2020 and is expected to run till 2025, has set even more ambitious targets.
  • Safe sanitation: SBM(Urban) 2.0 envisions to make all cities ‘Garbage Free’ and ensure grey and black water management in all cities other than those covered under AMRUT, make all urban local bodies as ODF+ and those with a population of less than 1 lakh as ODF++, thereby achieving the vision of safe sanitation in urban areas.
  • Solid waste management: The Mission will focus on source segregation of solid waste, utilizing the principles of 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle), scientific processing of all types of municipal solid waste and remediation of legacy dumpsites for effective solid waste management. The outlay of SBM-U 2.0 is around Rs.1.41 lakh crore.
  • The Lighthouse Initiative (LHI):
  • Commissioned by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation as part of the Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav is to be implemented through PPP, across villages in 75-gram panchayats in 15 states in Phase1.
  • LHI is based on the principle of inclusive sanitation and leaving no one behind.
  • LHI aims to effectively implement solid and liquid waste management structures by employing a participatory and consultative approach through mobilisation of the village communities, corporate, district and block administration and gram panchayat officers. Joint ownership and accountability between local governments, communities and corporates will ensure the success of the initiative.
  • Public private partnership: The India Sanitation Coalition (ISC) is a multi-stakeholder platform that creates meaningful collaborations. These stakeholders include the private sector, government, financial institutions, civil society groups, media, donors, etc. Today, ISC is recognised as the official intersection between the government and the private sector for engagement in helping build solid and liquid waste management infrastructure sustainably.
  • CSR Funding: The private sector will supplement this through CSR funding. Going forward, the ISC will continue to focus on the government’s position with regard to the thematic inter-linkages  between WASH and sectors such as health, education, gender, nutrition and livelihoods


  • Cleanliness is next to the Godliness. Sanitation is linked with health, environment and economy. Swachh Bharat mission 2.0 has noble intention. It has to become the citizen’s movement to replicate the success of phase 1 of the mission.

Mains Questions

Q.Solid waste management, including e-waste, will be major sanitation issues in the coming years. Discuss the role of citizens, government and various stakeholders in society in this context.

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Swachh Bharat Mission

The Jal Jeevan and Swachh Bharat Missions are improving people’s well-being


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Jal Jeevan Mission

Mains level : Paper 2- Achievements of JJM and SBM


The performance of the Jal Jeevan and Swachh Bharat Missions highlights the importance of convergence as an operating principle of the government.

 Jal Jeevan Mission: Progress made so far

  • Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) is a flagship programme of the Government of India, launched by Hon’ble Prime Minister on 15th August 2019.
  • Jal Jeevan Mission, is envisioned to provide safe and adequate drinking water through individual household tap connections by 2024 to all households in rural India.
  • Community approach: The Jal Jeevan Mission is based on a community approach to water and will include extensive Information, Education and communication as a key component of the mission.
  • Over 9.6 crore rural households get tap water supply; notably, more than 6.36 crore households have been provided tap water connections since the programme was announced in August 2019.

Achievements of Swachh Bharat Mission

  • Universal sanitation coverage: To accelerate the efforts to achieve universal sanitation coverage and to put the focus on sanitation, the Prime Minister of India had launched the Swachh Bharat Mission on 2nd October 2014.
  • Under the mission, all villages, Gram Panchayats, Districts, States and Union Territories in India declared themselves “open-defecation free” (ODF) by 2 October 2019, the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.
  • To ensure that the open defecation free behaviours are sustained, no one is left behind, and that solid and liquid waste management facilities are accessible, the Mission is moving towards the next Phase II of SBMG i.e ODF-Plus.
  • Swachh Bharat Mission Phase-2: The government has launched Swachh Bharat Mission Phase 2 with a focus on plastic waste management, biodegradable solid waste management, grey water management and faecal sludge management.
  •  Under Swachh Bharat Mission Phase-2, arrangements for solid and liquid waste management have been made in 41,450 villages; nearly 4 lakh villages have minimal stagnant water.
  • ODF Plus: Nearly 22,000 villages have been named “model village” under the ODF Plus scheme, and another 51,000 villages are on their way to achieving this tag.
  • Sludge treatment and plastic waste management: Before the government embarked on Swachh Bharat Mission, nearly 1,20,000 tonnes of faecal sludge was left untreated as two-thirds of all toilets were not connected to the main sewer lines
  • The scale of India’s plastic waste pollution is staggering.
  • Both these problems find themselves on the agenda of Swachh Bharat Mission’s Phase 2.
  • In a short time, 3.5 lakh villages have become plastic dump free and nearly 4.23 lakh villages have minimal litter.
  • Nearly 178 faecal sludge treatment plants and nearly 90,000 km of drains have been constructed.

How convergence between SBM and JJM enabled each other

  • Principle of convergence: The late Arun Jaitley introduced convergence as one of the primary operating principles of the government in his first budget speech.
  • One enabling the other: The best exhibition of this can be found in the ways in which the Jal Jeevan Mission and Swachh Bharat Mission work in tandem, one enabling the other.
  • More than 10 crore toilets were built under SBM but this accomplishment could have been difficult had the government not had the foresight to build the toilets on a twin-pit design that has in-situ treatment of faecal sludge.
  • Now, providing tap water connections through the Jal Jeevan Mission is among the government’s top priorities.
  • Managing grey water discharge: The Jal Jeevan Mission faces a challenge similar to that faced by the Swachh Bharat Mission — managing grey water discharge.
  • Holistic sanitation: When household tap connections were provided, the Jal Jeevan Mission converged with the Swachh Bharat Mission to achieve holistic sanitation in which the treatment of grey water became a vital component.
  • Focus on women: The Jal Jeevan mission intends to relieve women of the drudgery of travelling long distances to fetch water.
  • The Swachh Bharat Mission too is centred around the dignity of women.
  • A joint study by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and UNICEF revealed that an overwhelming number (80 per cent) of the respondents stated that safety and security were the main drivers of their decision to construct toilets.
  • The Jal Jeevan Mission is catalysing change at the grass roots level by reserving 50 per cent seats for women in village and water sanitation committees.
  • In every village, at least five women have been entrusted with water quality surveillance and many of them have been trained as plumbers, mechanics and pump operators.

Impact on growth and economy

  •  In 2006, a joint study by WSP, Asian Development Bank and UKAID revealed that inadequate sanitation cost India Rs 2.4 trillion — 6 per cent of India’s GDP at that time.
  • The Swachh Bharat Mission, apart from preventing GDP loss, provides annual benefits worth Rs 53,000 per household.


The success of Jal Jeevan Mission and Swachh Bharat Mission is a good example of convergence, one of the primary operating principles of the government.

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Swachh Bharat Mission

Manual Scavenging and its prevalence in India


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : NA

Mains level : Manual scavenging in India

Three laborers in Mumbai, allegedly hired for manual scavenging, died after inhaling toxic fumes in a septic tank.

What is Manual Scavenging?

  • Manual scavenging is the practice of removing human excreta by hand from sewers or septic tanks.
  • India banned the practice under the Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013 (PEMSR).
  • The Act bans the use of any individual for manually cleaning, carrying, disposing of or otherwise handling in any manner, human excreta till its disposal.
  • In 2013, the definition of manual scavengers was also broadened to include people employed to clean septic tanks, ditches, or railway tracks.
  • The Act recognizes manual scavenging as a “dehumanizing practice,” and cites a need to “correct the historical injustice and indignity suffered by the manual scavengers.”

Why is it still prevalent in India?

  • Low awareness: Manual scavenging is mostly done by the marginalized section of the society and they are generally not aware about their rights.
  • Enforcement issues: The lack of enforcement of the Act and exploitation of unskilled labourers are the reasons why the practice is still prevalent in India.
  • High cost of automated: The Mumbai civic body charges anywhere between Rs 20,000 and Rs 30,000 to clean septic tanks.
  • Cheaper availability: The unskilled labourers, meanwhile, are much cheaper to hire and contractors illegally employ them at a daily wage of Rs 300-500.
  • Caste dynamics: Caste hierarchy still exists and it reinforces the caste’s relation with occupation. Almost all the manual scavengers belong to lower castes.

Various policy initiatives

  • Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation (Amendment) Bill, 2020: It proposes to completely mechanise sewer cleaning, introduce ways for ‘on-site’ protection and provide compensation to manual scavengers in case of sewer deaths.
  • Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013: Superseding the 1993 Act, the 2013 Act goes beyond prohibitions on dry latrines, and outlaws all manual excrement cleaning of insanitary latrines, open drains, or pits.
  • Rashtriya Garima Abhiyan: It started national wide march “Maila Mukti Yatra” for total eradication of manual scavenging from 30th November 2012 from Bhopal.
  • Prevention of Atrocities Act: In 1989, the Prevention of Atrocities Act became an integrated guard for sanitation workers since majority of the manual scavengers belonged to the Scheduled Caste.
  • Compensation: As per the Prohibition of Employment of Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation (PEMSR) Act, 2013 and the Supreme Court’s decision in the Safai Karamchari Andolan vs Union of India case, a compensation of Rs 10 lakh is awarded to the victims family.

Way forward

  • Regular surveys and social audits must be conducted against the involvement of manual scavengers by public and local authorities.
  • There must be proper identification and capacity building of manual scavengers for alternate sources of livelihood.
  • Creating awareness about the legal protection of manual scavengers is necessary.


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Swachh Bharat Mission

Meendum Manjappai Scheme


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Meendum Manjappai Scheme

Mains level : Not Much

Tamil Nadu CM has launched the ‘Meendum Manjappai’ Scheme to promote the use of cloth bags by the public and discourage the use of plastic bags.

Meendum Manjappai Scheme

  • This awareness campaign on using ‘yellow’ cloth bag or ‘manjapai’ as it is called in Tamil, is aimed at encouraging the people to return to the use of this eco-friendly bag and discard the plastic bags.
  • Manjal means turmeric in Tamil which has curative power. The manjapai was an integral part of daily life in the past.
  • Traditionally the manjapais were used for shopping, carrying books, ration and even cash.
  • The state government had enforced a ban on the production, use, storage, distribution, transportation or sale of 14 types of plastics with effect from January 1, 2019.


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Swachh Bharat Mission

2nd phase of SBM-U and AMRUT Mission


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : SBM, AMRUT

Mains level : NA

The PM has launched the second phase of the Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban and Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation.

What are the missions?

[A] Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0

The Mission will focus on ensuring complete access to sanitation facilities to serve additional populations migrating from rural to urban areas in search of employment and better opportunities over the next 5 years.

  • Complete liquid waste management in cities in less than 1 lakh population to ensure that all wastewater is safely contained, collected, transported, and treated so that no wastewater pollutes our water bodies.
  • Source segregation- Under Sustainable Solid Waste Management, greater emphasis will be on source segregation.
  • Material Recovery Facilities and waste processing facilities will be set up, with a focus on phasing out single-use plastic.
  • Construction & demolition waste processing facilities will be set up.
  • Mechanical sweepers deployed in National Clean Air Programme cities and in cities with more than 5 lakh population.
  • Remediation of all legacy dumpsites will be another key component of the Mission.

[B] AMRUT 2.0

  • Water management: It will build upon the progress of AMRUT to address water needs, rejuvenate water bodies, better manage aquifers, reuse treated wastewater, thereby promoting circular economy of water.
  • Water supply: It would provide100% coverage of water supply to all households in around 4,700 ULBs.
  • Sewerage: It will provide 100% coverage of sewerage and septage in 500 AMRUT cities.
  • Rejuvenation of water bodies and urban aquifer management: It will be undertaken to augment sustainable fresh water supply.
  • Recycle and reuse of treated wastewater: It is expected to cater to 20% of total water needs of the cities and 40% of industrial demand.
  • Pey Jal Survekshan: It will be conducted in cities to ascertain equitable distribution of water, reuse of wastewater and mapping of water bodies.


All about the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan


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Swachh Bharat Mission

SUJALAM Campaign


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : SUJALAM Campaign

Mains level : Not Much

The Ministry of Jal Shakti began ‘SUJALAM’, a ‘100 days campaign’ to create more and more ODF Plus villages by undertaking wastewater management at the village level.

SUJALAM Campaign

The key activities that will be organized in the villages under this campaign include:

  • Organizing Community consultations, Khuli Baithaks and Gram Sabha meetings to analyze the current situation
  • Pass resolution to maintain ODF sustainability and achieve a needed number of soak pits to manage the greywater
  • Develop a 100 days’ plan to undertake sustainability and soak pit construction-related activities
  • Construct a requisite number of soak pits
  • Retrofit toilets where needed through IEC and community mobilization and
  • Ensure all newly emerging Households in the village have access to toilets

Objectives of the campaign

  • The effort of the campaign would be directed towards achieving the ODF plus status for villages across the country in an accelerated manner in a short time.
  • The campaign will not only build desired infrastructure soak pit for management of greywater in villages but will also aid in sustainable management of water bodies.
  • The disposal of wastewater and clogging of water bodies in the villages or on the outskirts of the villages remain one of the major problems.
  • The Campaign would help in the management of the wastewater and in turn, would help to revive the water bodies.

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Swachh Bharat Mission

Sabarmati Riverfront Development Project


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Sabarmati River

Mains level : Riverfront development and its economic potential

The Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, in its draft budget for 2021-22, has set aside Rs 1050 crore for the Sabarmati River Front Development phase 2, work on which is to begin soon.

Rs 1050 crore fund! See how rich even the Municipal Corporations in India are!

Sabarmati Riverfront Development Project

  • The SRDP is an environmental improvement, social uplift and urban rejuvenation project that will renew Ahmedabad.
  • The project is being developed by the Sabarmati Riverfront Development Corporation Ltd. (SRFDCL), a company wholly owned by the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation.
  • The project will reclaim approximately 200 hectares of land from the riverbed.
  • To reclaim the land, protect low lying developments from floods, and prevent erosion of the river banks, retaining walls have been built on both sides of the river.
  • Since Sabarmati is a seasonal river, water is channelled into the river from the Narmada canal, which intersects the river upstream from Ahmedabad and is retained in the river using the Vasna Barrage which is located downstream.

Significance of the project

  • The reclaimed land will make Ahmadabad’s riverfront, a public asset.
  • The project will provide Ahmedabad with 11.5 km long pedestrian promenades at the water’s edge along both the banks of the river.
  • In addition, many new public facilities will be built on the reclaimed land: cultural centres, museums, sports facilities, trade fair grounds and open-air markets.
  • A small portion of the reclaimed land will be sold for private commercial and residential developments.
  • The project has won Prime Minister’s National Award for Excellence in Urban Planning and Design in the year of 2003.

Also, revise the concept of Water Divide from your NCERTS or refer to this link: https://www.ncert.nic.in/ncerts/l/iess103.pdf

Back2Basics: Sabarmati River

  • Sabarmati is one of the major west-flowing rivers in India. Being a rain-fed river it runs dry most of the year.
  • It originates in the Aravalli Range of the Udaipur District of Rajasthan and meets the Gulf of Khambhat of the Arabian Sea after travelling 371 km in a south-westerly direction across Rajasthan and Gujarat.
  • 48 km of the river length is in Rajasthan, while 323 km is in Gujarat.
  • There are several reservoirs on Sabarmati and its tributaries. The Dharoi dam is located on the main river. Hathmati dam, Harnav dam and Guhai dam are located on the tributaries.

Swachh Bharat Mission

Women’s needs are key to Swachh Bharat success


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Not much

Mains level : Paper 2- Women's role in SBM

The article highlights the central role of women in the success of the Swacch Bharat Mission.

Recognising the gender dimensions of sanitation in India

  • The Swachh Bharat Grameen Phase I guidelines (2017) state that requirements and sensitivities related to gender are to be taken into account at all stages of sanitation programmes.
  • Planning, procurement, infrastructure creation, and monitoring are the basic tenets of implementation in Swachh Bharat and the guidelines for the first phase of the mission called for strengthening the role of women.
  • The states were accordingly expected to ensure adequate representation of women in the village water and sanitation committees (VWSCs), leading to optimal gender outcomes.
  • The department of Drinking Water and Sanitation released the guidelines, recognising the gender dimensions of sanitation in India.
  • Swachh Bharat Mission 2 .0 speaks of sustained behavioural change while embarking on the newer agendas of sustainable solid waste management and safe disposal of wastewater and reuse.
  • Besides the government, the role of non-state actors like the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Unicef and several NGOs, must be lauded as we pursue sustainable sanitation using a powerful gender lens.

Challenges and solutions

  • There were inevitably cases where women were fronts for spouses.
  • This capturing has happened in panchayat seats as well but research has shown that over time, women do pick up the challenge, and if voted back are likely to assume charge.
  • The government has also very effectively used over 8 lakh swachhagrahis, mainly women, who for small honorariums work to push through behavioural change at the community level.
  • There are no quick solutions other than adopting concerted approaches to ensure the survival and protection of the girl child through good health from sanitation and nutrition.
  • Information, education, and communication, which aims at behaviour change of the masses, is key to the success of the swachhta mission 2.0.
  • Changes in SBM messaging reflects major transformations attempting to popularise and portray stories of women groups and successful women swachhta champions.

Need for monitoring and evaluation system

  • A national monitoring and evaluation system to track and measure gender outcomes in SBM is necessary.
  • Several researchers in this space have commented that gender analysis frameworks have a long history in development practice.
  • We can learn from these frameworks to support design, implementation, and measurement.


There is no doubt that women can help to drive change and bring about lasting change as the jan andolan for swachhta, health and sanitation gains momentum.

Swachh Bharat Mission

Swachh Bharat Puraskar (PIB)


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Swachh Bharat Puruskaar, Gandgi se Mukt Campaign

Mains level : Efforts for sanitation and cleanliness

What are Swachh Bharat Puruskar ?

  • he Swachh Bharat (2020) Awards were conferred to the best performing States/UTs, districts, blocks, GPs and others in various categories marking six years of the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) launch.
  • The awards were given by Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS).
  • Top Awards were conferred upon Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab& others.
  • Gujarat was felicitated with the first prize in the state category; Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu as best district; Khachrod, Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh as best block; and Chinnaur, (Salem) as the best Gram Panchayat for Swachh Sundar Samudayik Shauchalaya (SSSS) campaign organized from 1st Nov 2019 to 30th April 2020.
  • For the week-long Gandagi Se Mukt campaign launched by Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi on 8th August 2020, Telangana received the top award for maximum Shramdaan participation.


Swachh Bharat Mission

[pib] Highlights of the Swachh Survekshan 2020


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Swachh Survekshan 2020

Mains level : Success of SBM

Image Source: TH

Indore was declared the cleanest city in India for the fourth consecutive time in the Swachh Survekshan, 2020 — India’s annual survey on cleanliness.

Note the following things about Swachh Survekshan:

1) Nodal Ministry (It is Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs)

2) Authority carrying out the survey

3) Various parameters of the survey

Swachh Survekshan

  • It is an annual survey of cleanliness, hygiene and sanitation in cities and towns across India.
  • It ranks India’s cities, towns and states based on sanitation, waste management and overall cleanliness.
  • It was launched as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, which aimed to make India clean and free of open defecation by 2 October 2019.
  • The first survey was undertaken in 2016 and covered 73 cities; by 2019 the survey had grown to cover 4237 cities and was said to be the largest cleanliness survey in the world.

Survey methodology

  • The surveys are carried out by the Quality Council of India. The criteria and weightage for different components of sanitation-related aspects used for the survey were:

a) Municipal documentation (solid waste management including door-to-door collection, processing, and disposal, and open defecation free status. These carried 45 per cent of the total 2,000 marks.

b) Citizen feedback – 30 per cent (450 + 150 marks)

c) Independent observation – 25 per cent (500 marks)

Highlights of the 2020 Rankings

  • Surat in Gujarat and Navi Mumbai in Maharashtra bagged the second and third spot respectively among the cleanest cities with more than a million populations.
  • Maharashtra’s Karad, Saswad and Lonavala bagged the first three positions for cities having a population less than one lakh.
  • Among the cities with a population between one and 10 lakh, Chhattisgarh’s Ambikapur was declared the cleanest, followed by Mysore in Karnataka.
  • In fact, Chhattisgarh has ranked the cleanest state in the category of states having more than 100 Urban Local Bodies (ULB). It was followed by Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.
  • In 2019, Chhattisgarh was in the third position in the category. The survey found that Chhattisgarh is the first and only state where every city achieved Open Defecation Free (ODF)++ status.

Swachh Bharat Mission

Prerak Dauur Samman


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : SBM , Prerak Dauur Samman

Mains level : SBM and its success

The Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs (MoHUA) announced a new category of awards titled ‘Prerak Dauur Samman’ as part of Swachh Survekshan 2021.

Try this question:

Q. The Prerak Dauur Samman recently seen in news is related to:

a) Swachh Bharat b) Literature c) Health Services d) Visual Arts

Prerak Dauur Samman

  • The Prerak Dauur Samman has a total of five additional subcategories -Divya (Platinum), Anupam (Gold), Ujjwal (Silver), Udit (Bronze), Aarohi (Aspiring) – with top three cities being recognized in each.
  • In a departure from the present criteria of evaluating cities on ‘population category’, this new category will categorize cities on the basis of six select indicator wise performance criteria which are as follows:

1) Segregation of waste into Wet, Dry and Hazard categories

2) Processing capacity against wet waste generated

3) Processing and recycling of wet and dry waste

4) Construction & Demolition (C&D) waste processing

5) Percentage of waste going to landfills

6) Sanitation status of cities

Swachh Bharat Mission

[pib] Star Ratings of Garbage Free Cities


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Star Ratings of Garbage Free Cities

Mains level : Success of SBM

The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) has released the Star rating of garbage-free cities for the assessment year 2019-2020.

Practice question for mains:

Q. Discuss how the Swachh Bharat Mission has become a people’s movement in India. Also, discuss how it has managed to instill a behavioural change amongst the citizens.

About Star Rating Protocol

  • The Star Rating Protocol was launched by the MoHUA in January 2018 to institutionalize a mechanism for cities to achieve Garbage Free status and to motivate cities to achieve higher degrees of cleanliness.
  • The protocol has been devised in a holistic manner including components such as the cleanliness of drains & water bodies, plastic waste management, managing construction & demolition waste, etc.
  • While the key thrust of this protocol is on Solid waste management(SWM), it also takes care of ensuring certain minimum standards of sanitation through a set of prerequisites defined in the framework.
  • The new protocol considers ward-wise geo-mapping, monitoring of SWM value chain through ICT interventions like Swachh Nagar App and zone-wise rating in cities with a population above 50 lakh.

Performance of cities

  • Accordingly, as per the 2020 survey, 6 cities have been graded 5 stars, 65 Cities rated 3 Star and 70 Cities rated 1 Star.

5 Star Cities

ULB Name State Final Rating
Ambikapur Chhattisgarh 5 Star
Rajkot Gujarat 5 Star
Surat Gujarat 5 Star
Mysore Karnataka 5 Star
Indore Madhya Pradesh 5 Star
Navi Mumbai Maharashtra 5 Star

Assessment under the protocol

  • To ensure that the Protocol has a SMART framework, the MoHUA has developed a three-stage assessment process.
  • In the first stage, ULBs populate their progress data on the portal along with supporting documents within a particular timeframe.
  • The second stage involves a desktop assessment by a third-party agency selected and appointed by MoHUA.
  • Claims of cities that clear the desktop assessment are then verified through independent field-level observations in the third stage.


  • This certification is an acknowledgement of the clean status of Urban Local Bodies and strengthened SWM systems as well as a mark of trust and reliability akin to universally known standards.

Back2Basics: Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM)

  • SBM is a nation-wide campaign in India for the period 2014 to 2019 that aims to clean up the streets, roads and infrastructure of India’s cities, towns, urban and rural areas.
  • The objectives of Swachh Bharat include eliminating open defecation through the construction of household-owned and community-owned toilets and establishing an accountable mechanism of monitoring toilet use.
  • Run by the GoI, the mission aims to achieve an “open-defecation free” (ODF) India by 2 October 2019, the 150th anniversary of the birth of Mahatma Gandhi by constructing 90 million toilets in rural India.
  • The mission will also contribute to India reaching Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG 6), established by the UN in 2015.
  • It is India’s largest cleanliness drive to date with three million government employees and students from all parts of India participating in 4,043 cities, towns, and rural areas.
  • The mission has two thrusts: Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (“gramin” or ‘rural’), which operates under the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation; and Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (‘urban’), which operates under the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.

Swachh Bharat Mission

The next mission


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Not much.

Mains level : Paper 2- Success of Swachh Bharat Mission and replicating it in Jal Jeevan Mission.


After the success of the SBM, government is looking for the next mission in the form of Jal Jeevan Mission.

Investment in Sanitation

  • Investment of over 1 lakh crore: The central and state governments have invested in excess of one lakh crore on sanitation over the past five years.
  • Where the fund was used? A majority of these funds have gone towards-
    • Incentivising the poor and marginalised households to construct and use household toilets.
    • Bringing about behaviour change, and-
    • Building capacities of field functionaries.
  • The success of the mission: Over 10 crore toilets have been built in rural India and nearly 55 crore people have stopped defecating in the open, all in just five years.
    • This has contributed in bringing down global open defecation by more than half.
  • Return on the investment in sanitation: The returns on these investments have been manifold, and their effects on the broader economy, markets and employment have been significant.
    • 400 % return: The UNICEF recently estimated that investments in sanitation in India are yielding a 400 per cent return with each rural household in an open-defecation-free village saving Rs 50,000 on account of avoided medical costs and time savings.
  • Future prospects for the sanitation infrastructure: The Toilet Board Coalition has estimated that the sanitation infrastructure and services market in India will be worth over $60 billion by 2021.
    • Many new jobs, even in the most rural areas of the country, apart from reducing health and environmental costs and generating savings for households.
  • Growth in the sanitation-related business: The business of manufacturing toilet-related hardware accessories have reported huge growth in sales during the SBM period.
    • They project a continued uptrend through retrofitting and upgrades.
    • This has been corroborated by another recent study by UNICEF in which they have estimated that SBM has resulted in creating over 75 lakh full-time equivalent jobs over the past five years, giving the rural economy a major boost.

A milestone, not a finish-line

  • Sustaining the success: The government is committed to ensuring that this success is sustained.
  • On October 2, 2019, the prime minister said that we must all ensure that people continue to use toilets and that no one is left behind.
  • Allocation of 10,000 crores in the Budget: This has been backed up by the finance minister in the budget for 2020-21.
    • In the budget, she announced about Rs 10,000 crore for rural sanitation to focus on-
    • ODF sustainability.
    • Bio-degradable waste management.
    • Greywater management.
    • Sludge management and-
    • Plastic waste management for all villages by 2024.

Next Mission- Piped Water Supply

  • Jal Jeevan Mission: The next critical basic service, is piped water supply. On Independence day this year, the prime minister announced the Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM).
    • With the goal of ensuring piped water supply for all households of India by 2024 and with a commitment of Rs 3.6 lakh crore of central and state funds for the scheme.
    • The budgetary allocation of 12,000 crores: In the Union budget for 2020-2021, the government has already allocated Rs 11,500 crore for JJM, with an additional Rs 12,000 crore being made available through extra-budgetary resources.
  • Earmarking 50% grants for drinking water and sanitation: In addition, a huge impetus to the rural water supply and sanitation sector is the earmarking of 50 per cent of the Rs 60,750 crore grant for rural local bodies provided under the Fifteenth Finance Commission for drinking water and sanitation.
    • Making local bodies more responsible: This will ensure that the gram panchayats and local communities are responsible for the upkeep of their water and sanitation infrastructure, providing a boost to the sustainability of service delivery to people.
    • Making sanitation and water supply everyone’s business: This approach will ensure that just like sanitation, provision of water supply and its upkeep will also become everyone’s business.


It is fairly clear now that investment in sanitation is actually a facilitator for broader economic, health and social gains. The government should ensure the sustainability of SBM and replicate its success in implementing the JJM.


Swachh Bharat Mission

[Op-ed snap]The ABCDEF of implementation


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level : Not much.

Mains level : Government policies and intervention for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.


Over the years many well-designed schemes failed to make a significant dent on the lack of access to basic services that a large proportion of our population faced. However, Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) has thrown up six guiding principles, which can be applied to any large transformation scheme.

What made the difference?

  • Final delivery of service was considered as the only metric of success.
  • There has been a relentless emphasis on taking all schemes to fruition on the ground.
  • The success has thrown up six important guiding principles that can be applied to any large transformation scheme — the ABCEDF of implementation.


  • Different people at different levels may have competing priorities. So, goal congruence has to be achieved across the administrative ecosystem i.e. aligning the goal.
  • The message must percolate down to all the levels.
  • After the announcement of SBM the Department of Drinking water and Sanitation had to ensure that the message reaches the Chief Ministers, 700 district collectors, and 2,50,000 sarpanches.
  • The three layers of the PM-CM-DM model working in cohesion is the first and most important step towards policy translating into real delivery.
  • Team SBM-Grameen ensured sanitation remained on everyone’s agenda.


  • Believing in the set goal is crucial for achieving success.
  • When faced with seemingly insurmountable goals, teams that don’t genuinely believe that the goal can be achieved find themselves not motivated enough.
  • This lack of motivation results in them not trying enough and not achieving results- a self-fulfilling prophecy.
  • So, the next important step is to build a team of people who believes that the goal is achievable.
  • The SBM brought in a unique blend of young professionals and experienced but driven bureaucrats, at the center and in the states, and each person quickly became a believer.


  • At its core, SBM is a behavioral change program.
  • Communication at all levels, above and below the line, mass and inter-personal, is fundamental to the SBM.
  • Trained grassroots volunteers called Swachagrahis were created, who went from door to door to communicate the message of swachhata.
  •  SBM attempted to make sanitation glamorous.
  • Glamour was sought to achieve by engaging extensively with media, leveraging popular culture, and associating Bollywood stars, sportspersons, and other influencers.
  • A recent study estimated that each rural Indian was reached by SBM messaging about 3,000 times over the past five years.


  • Democratize means developing a feeling of belonging or being part of something.
  • SBM has become a sort of Jan Andolan.
  • It nudged people to realise that sanitation is not an individual good, but a community good, as its full benefits accrue only when it is universal.
  •  Over the years, everyone became a stakeholder and sanitation became everyone’s business.
  • Even corporates, NGOs, civil society organizations and other government ministries and departments played a role in mainstreaming sanitation.


  • The SBM was operating at a massive scale in a largely decentralised manner
  • As progress started surpassing expectations many people questioned the veracity of official administrative progress figures.
  • So, it became important to encourage third-party monitoring.
  • The monitoring evaluates outputs, outcomes, and impacts to reinforce the credibility and keep the implementers motivated.
  • At the same time, pockets of excellence emerged which deserved to be studied and shared with others to replicate.
  • The various organization conducted an assessment with regard to various factors.
  • World Bank, UNICEF, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and WHO conducted various assessments of sanitation coverage and usage, successes and areas of improvement, as well as the health, economic and social impacts of the SBM.


  • There is a strong focus on not declaring SBM a “mission accomplished”.
  • The SBM is continuing to work towards sustaining the ODF behaviour and ensuring that no one is left behind.
  • Recently released a forward-looking 10-year sanitation strategy, articulating the goal of moving from ODF to ODF Plus.
  • This post-delivery follow-through is critical to ensure that the change becomes the norm and that things don’t reset to what they used to be in the past.


The lessons learned from SBM and these guiding principles could be applied in the implementation of other such policies. And aligning with this goal, the Jal Jeevan Mission is being designed to deliver, based on the ABCDEF of implementation.

Lets get to the basics of Cess, before we explore more about Swachh Bharat Cess.


What is a Cess?

Cess is a tax on tax, temporary levied by the govt. to achieve a specific objective. Generally, it is expected to be levied till the time the govt. gets enough money for that purpose.

For instance, the education cess, that is levied currently, is meant to finance basic education in the country.

What is the quantum of revenue generated through Cess?

  • The education and higher education cesses are budgeted to bring approx. Rs 30,000 crore this year.
  • The road cess on petroleum is budgeted to net just under Rs 50,000 crore.
  • There is also a cess on exports, clean energy, etc.

The total amount from cesses is Rs 1.16 lakh crore.

What is the criticism against Cesses?

  • The problem with cesses is that it becomes permanent in nature.
  • These levies are back door entry instead of levying taxes.

How Cess is different from Surcharge?

Surcharge is also a tax on tax, which is imposed on incomes above a certain level with a view to reduce the inequalities further.

  • There is a surcharge of 12% on individuals whose taxable income exceeds Rs. 1 crore.
  • Similarly, there is also a surcharge of 10% on the domestic companies whose taxable income exceeds Rs.10 crore, and also a surcharge of 5% on the foreign companies whose taxable income exceeds Rs.10 crore.

Now, let’s now come to the core of the topic


What is Swachh Bharat Cess?

The resources generated from the cess will be utilised for financing and promoting initiatives towards Swachh Bharat. It is a step towards involving each and every citizen in making contribution to Swachh Bharat.

  • Govt. has introduced a cess of 0.5% on all services and 2% on air services.
  • The revenue department is preparing a list of services which will attract the additional 2% cess provided for in the Budget 2015-16, over and above the proposed 14%.

Where does the proceeds of the Swachh Bharat Cess go?

The proceeds of the Swachh Bharat cess would be first credited to the Consolidated Fund of India. The govt. would be able to utilise it after due appropriation is made by Parliament by law. This will later go to Swachh Bharat Kosh.

The Government expects to collect around Rs 10,000 crore from Swachh Bharat cess for full year

Why does it goes against the principle of fiscal federalism?

  • The central divisible pool excludes levies classified as surcharges and cess for specific purpose.
  • The entire proceeds would remain with the Centre and need not be compulsorily shared with the states.
  • Swachh Bharat cess, to some extent, is a vague pretext for a cess, unlike the ones for national highways or high-speed rail corridors, which can be more effectively implemented at the Central level.

What will be the impact of GST on the cess?

There is no input credit available on this cess, which goes against the very principle of the GST and thereby weakens the Centre’s case for pushing through GST.

The cesses and surcharges would be subsumed once the GST is rolled out. So both for tax payers and states, this is for the time being.


Published with inputs from Pushpendra
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