From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :
Prelims level : Indian national army particuars
Mains level : Modern Indian history developments
- In the year of ‘Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav’, the nation pays tribute to Subhas Bose on September 8 as his statue rises tall next to India Gate.
Crux of this article in simple words
- The transfer of power to India took place on August 15, 1947. Had Bose and his Indian National Army (INA) succeeded, India would have attained freedom, not inherited it through a transfer of power.
Brief of historical account of his career
- Bose was the ninth child in 14 and the sixth son to Janakinath Bose, a lawyer from the Kayasth caste.
- He passed matriculation in 1913 from Cuttack and joined the Presidency College in Kolkata (then Calcutta).
- The teachings of Swami Vivekananda and Ramakrishna Paramhansa led to a spiritual awakening in Bose at the young age of 15.
- Subhash Chandra Bose reached Singapore on July 2, 1943, at the invitation of Rash Behari Bose. He took charge as the President of the Indian Independence League and took over as the leader for East Asia.
- On October 23 1943, with the help of the Japanese Army, Netaji declared war on the United States and Britain.
- He was fondly called Netaji and was arrested 11 times in his freedom struggle and died under mysterious circumstances in an air crash over Taipei.
His vision for INA march in India
- Creating revolutionary conditions: Bose had hoped to capture Imphal. That would give the INA a large number of Indian soldiers. Once this was achieved, fighting in India would create revolutionary conditions.
- Organization of INA divisions at border: When the fighting commenced, the INA had only one division stationed on India’s borders. Another was on the move towards Burma. And the third was in the process of formation. All three divisions were expected to be in Burma by the time Imphal fell.
- Rapid invasion from north east: Bose was confident of raising three more divisions from among the Indian troops that would fall to him after the capture of Imphal. With six divisions, the INA would be the single largest force in the region. The rapid advance into India would create the right conditions for the Indian army to switch sides along with the people of the Northeast.
“It is our duty to pay for our liberty with our own blood.”
“No great change in history has ever been achieved by discussions”
Azad Hind Radio
- This radio station was created to encourage countrymen to fight for freedom under the leadership of Subhas Chandra Bose.
- The radio station used to broadcast news at weekly intervals in various languages like English, Hindi, Tamil, Punjabi, Urdu, etc.
- The main aim for the formation of the Azad Hind Radio was to counter the broadcast of allied radio stations and to fill Indian nationals with pride and motivation to fight for freedom.
The Rani Jhansi Regiment
- Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was a firm believer of women’s power and women were also greatly inspired by his words.
- He had always wanted to form an only women’s regiment and his dream came to fruition with the formation of the Rani Jhansi Regiment on 12th July 1943.
- About 170 women cadets joined the force and their training camp was set in Singapore.
- They were given ranks according to their educational background.
- By November of 1943, this unit had more than 300 cadets as camps were also established in Rangoon and Bangkok.
- The women cadets were given military and combat training, weapons training, and route marches. Some of them were also chosen for advanced training and some were also chosen for training as a nurse.
- The Rani Jhansi Regiment mainly worked as care and relief givers.
- The unit later disbanded after the fall of Rangoon and the withdrawal of the Azad Hind Government.
- Bose maintained that the Congress leaders wanted freedom in their lifetime. He believed that no revolutionary leader had the right to expect that. A movement, a fight, had to be passed on. Expecting freedom in one’s lifetime was bound to lead to compromises.
Q. Netaji Subhas Bose was an exceptional leader who turned his vision into action. Critically analyse.