International Space Agencies – Missions and Discoveries

Galaxy JADES-GS-z14-0: Insights from NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope


From UPSC perspective, the following things are important :

Prelims level: JADES-GS-z14-0 Galaxy, JWST

Why in the News? 

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), launched by NASA, has unveiled a groundbreaking find It has captured imagery of the universe’s earliest-known galaxy, revealing unexpected brightness and size given its formation during the universe’s infancy.

James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

  • JWST is a joint venture between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) launched in December 2021.
  • It is an orbiting infrared observatory that will complement and extend the discoveries of the Hubble Space Telescope, with longer wavelength coverage and greatly improved sensitivity.
  • Webb was formerly known as the “Next Generation Space Telescope” (NGST) and it was renamed in 2002 after a former NASA administrator, James Webb.
  • It will be a large infrared telescope with an approximately 6.5-meter primary mirror.
  • JWST is positioned at the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrange point, 5 million km away.
  • It consists of a mirror, spanning 6.5 meters in diameter compared to Hubble’s 2.4 meters, as well as its specialized instruments optimized for infrared observations.

Key Objectives:

  • JWST observes deeper into the universe than Hubble.
  • Observes celestial objects from earlier epochs.
  • Enables the detection of light from the universe’s earliest stars, dating back over 13.5 billion years.

About JADES-GS-z14-0 Galaxy 

  • Named JADES-GS-z14-0, this galaxy was formed approximately 290 million years after the Big Bang.
  • Spanning about 1,700 light-years across, it consists of a mass equivalent to 500 million stars akin to our Sun.
  • Despite its ancient age, the galaxy is actively generating stars at a rapid pace, producing around 20 new stars annually.

Scientific Insights:

  • Historical Context: Previously, the earliest-known galaxy was dated to approximately 320 million years post-Big Bang, indicating the significance of this new discovery.
  • Luminosity Theories: While hypotheses suggest various explanations for the galaxy’s luminosity, including supermassive black holes or unusually bright stars, further research is required to validate these theories.


[2012] Which of the following is/are cited by the scientists as evidence/evidence for the continued expansion of the universe?

  1. Detection of microwaves in space
  2. Observation of redshift phenomenon in space
  3. Movement of asteroids in space
  4. Occurrence of supernova explosions in space

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 2 only

(c) 1, 3 and 4

(d) None of the above can be cited as evidence

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